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To read the full text of the final nuclear accord agreed to by the P5+1 and Iran, please click here.


The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) traces Iran’s nuclear arms ambitions as far back as 1984, when current supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Hosseini Khamenei was president and Iran was in the middle of the War with Iraq. Fearing that Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein might be developing a nuclear weapon, Iran felt the need to have its own bomb to deter its enemies. At a top-level meeting at that time, Khamenei endorsed a nuclear weapons program, saying "a nuclear arsenal would serve Iran as a deterrent in the hands of God's soldiers" (AP, September 18, 2009).  At this point, Iran faces “no insurmountable technical barriers to producing a nuclear weapon,” as stated by Marine Lieutenant General Vincent Stewart, director of the Defense Intelligence Agency.  (Bloomberg, February 2, 2015) A final nuclear accord was agreed to by P5+1 and Iranian negotiators and endorsed by the UN Security Council in July 2015. To read the full text of this final agreement, please click here.

Jump to:
Developing a Nuclear Program
Brains Behind Nuclear Project
Iran's Secret Nuclear Plants
Committment to Join "Nuclear Club"
Iran Admits Deception
2003 National Intelligence Estimate
Stuxnet Slows Uranium Enrichment
Iran Approaching a "Red Line"
Defiance & Advances in 2013
A New Nuclear Facility?
Plutonium Bomb Threat grows
Interim Deal Struck
Renewed Distrust
A Second Extension
Framework for a Deal
Reaching an Agreement
Is Iran Cheating?
Skepticism Surrounding a Final Deal
The Final Deal
Selling the Deal
The Iranians
Release of Hostages
Nitro Zeus
New Concerns Regarding Iran's Ballistic Missile Program
Iran Continues to be a Leading Sponsor of Terror
Iran Opens for Business
Trump Adopts new Iran Policy
Critiques of the JCPOA Implementation
Iran's Nuclear Archive
Trump Withdraws From The JCPOA
America's 12 Demands on Iran
New Sanctions
Europe Tries to Keep Agreement Alive
Sanctions Begin to Bite
Iran Continues to Advance Nuclear Program

Developing a Nuclear Program

In 1990, China signed a 10-year nuclear cooperation agreement that allowed Iranian nuclear engineers to obtain training in China. In addition, China had already built a nuclear research reactor in Iran that became operational in 1994.

Israel first received reports about an Iranian nuclear program in May 1992 and Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin tried to warn the Clinton Administration. The CIA, however, maintained that the Iranian program was civilian rather than military, an assessment the agency did not abandon until 1998 (New Republic, February 5, 2007).

In 2003, a man went to visit Olli Heinomen at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna. Heinomen won't reveal his source, but said that the man told him that Iran was building a replica of its existing uranium-enrichment site near the city of Qom. The informant also said Iran was replicating its heavy-water plant in Arak, which is capable of producing plutonium. The first claim was verified, but the second has not been -- yet. Heinomen also said that as early as 1993-94, the IAEA had learned that China had secretly sent two tons of uranium to Iran and that inspectors found suspicious laboratories, but still said everything was okay. The agency, he said, said nothing for three years (Wall Street Journal, March 2-3, 2013).

By 2003 the CIA had few doubts about Iran’s activities: "The United States remains convinced that Tehran has been pursuing a clandestine nuclear weapons program, in contradiction to its obligations as a party to the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT). During 2003, Iran continued to pursue an indigenous nuclear fuel cycle ostensibly for civilian purposes but with clear weapons potential."

The reference to Iran having a civilian nuclear program refers to the nuclear power plant at Bushehr. Construction of the plant was started in 1975 by German companies, but abandoned following the Islamic revolution in 1979. Iran subsequently signed a contract in 1995 with Russia to complete the plant. Financial wrangling between the Russians and Iranians delayed completion of the project, which was expected to be finished in 2006. Russia informed Tehran in early 2007 that it would withhold nuclear fuel for Bushehr unless Iran suspended its uranium enrichment (New York Times, March 20, 2007), but reversed its position a few months later and delivered the long-delayed first shipment of nuclear fuel. Still, other delays prevented the plant from coming online until 2011.

The Russian decision came after the release of a U.S. intelligence report that concluded Tehran had stopped its nuclear weapons program in late 2003. President George W. Bush said, "If the Iranians accept that uranium for a civilian nuclear power plant, then there’s no need for them to learn how to enrich." But a senior Iranian official said his country would under no circumstances halt its efforts to enrich uranium (Reuters, December 18, 2007 ).

The CIA saw the Bushehr project differently:

Iran continues to use its civilian nuclear energy program to justify its efforts to establish domestically or otherwise acquire the entire nuclear fuel cycle. Iran claims that this fuel cycle would be used to produce fuel for nuclear power reactors, such as the 1,000-megawatt light-water reactor that Russia is continuing to build at the southern port city of Bushehr. However, Iran does not need to produce its own fuel for this reactor because Russia has pledged to provide the fuel throughout the operating lifetime of the reactor and is negotiating with Iran to take back the irradiated spent fuel.

The Bushehr project provided valuable training to Iranian technicians and engineers, and expanded the regime's nuclear infrastructure. To allay U.S. fears that the fuel Russia is providing for the plant could be diverted to a weapons program, the Russians agreed to take back the spent fuel rods from the plant, but Iran would not agree to this.

The Brain Behind Iran's Nuclear Project

Though China and Russia have provided technology to Iran, the “brain” behind the Iranian nuclear program is believed to be Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, the father of Pakistan's nuclear program, who passed secrets and equipment to Iranian officials.

Khan became involved in helping Iran in the mid-1990s. Pakistani investigators told the IAEA that centrifuges built by Iran closely resemble the design of Pakistani centrifuges. Khan also helped the Iranians to set up a secret procurement network involving companies and middlemen around the world. In March 2005, former Iranian president Hashemi Rafsanjani admitted Iran developed its nuclear program in secret, going to the black market for material.

Iran's Secret Plants

In 2002, two previously unknown nuclear facilities were discovered in Iran by a delegation of the IAEA lead by Mohamed El-Baradei. One in Arak produces heavy water, which could be used to produce weapons. The other plant is in Natanz.

Also in 2002, Iran revealed that it had purchased special gas from China that could be used to enrich uranium for the production of nuclear weapons. The gas purchase was supposed to be reported to the IAEA, but it was concealed instead. Chinese experts have also been involved in the supervision of the installation of centrifuge equipment that can be used to enrich uranium.

In February 2003, Iranian President Mohammad Khatami announced the discovery of uranium reserves near the central city of Yazd and said Iran was setting up production facilities “to make use of advanced nuclear technology for peaceful purposes” (AP, February 11, 2003). This was an alarming development because it suggested Iran was attempting to obtain the means to produce and process fuel itself, despite the Russia’s offer to provide all the uranium Iran required for civilian purposes.

The Iranian government, confronted in February 2004 with new evidence obtained from the secret network of nuclear suppliers surrounding Khan, acknowledged it had a design for a far more advanced high-speed centrifuge to enrich uranium than it previously revealed to the IAEA. This type of centrifuge would allow Iran to produce nuclear fuel far more quickly than the equipment that it reluctantly revealed to the agency in 2003. This revelation proved that Iran lied when it claimed to have turned over all the documents relating to their enrichment program.

A Commitment to Join the Nuclear Club

After pledging to suspend its nuclear program, the IAEA reported in June 2004 that Iran was continuing to make parts and materials that could be used in the manufacture of nuclear arms. The report also cited continuing evidence that Iran misled inspectors with many of its early claims, especially on questions about where it obtained critical components. For example, Iranian officials admitted that some of those parts were purchased abroad, after initially insisting that Iran had made them itself (New York Times, June 3, 2004).

Iranian Foreign Minister Kamal Kharrazi rejected further outside influence on Tehran's nuclear ambitions. “We won't accept any new obligations," Kharrazi said. “Iran has a high technical capability and has to be recognized by the international community as a member of the nuclear club. This is an irreversible path” (AP, June 12, 2004).

On July 27, 2004, The Telegraph reported Iran had broken the seals on nuclear equipment monitored by UN inspectors and was again building and testing machines that could make fissile material for nuclear weapons. Teheran's move violated an agreement with European countries under which Iran suspended “all uranium enrichment activity.” Defying a key demand set by 35 nations, Iran announced on September 21, 2004, that it had started converting raw uranium into the gas needed for enrichment, a process that can be used to make nuclear weapons. A couple of weeks later, Iran announced it had processed several tons of raw ''yellowcake'' uranium to prepare it for enrichment - a key step in developing atomic weapons - in defiance of the IAEA (AP, October 6, 2004).

South African Defense Minister Mosiuoa Lekota and his Iranian counterpart Rear-Admiral Ali Shamkhani signed a memorandum of understanding August 17, 2004, on bilateral cooperation. The agreement included an arrangement for South Africa to sell uranium to Iran, according to Israel's Channel 1 TV. Lekota reportedly said that making peaceful use of nuclear energy is the legitimate right of the Islamic Republic. The South African Ministry of Defense subsequently denied the report. In another sign of Iran's determination to move forward with a nuclear weapons program, the government approved the establishment of a secret nuclear research center to train its scientists in all aspects of atomic technology (Telegraph, March 20, 2005). Then, in contradiction to earlier claims, Iran admitted in June 2005 that it conducted experiments to create plutonium, which is used only in weapons and not for energy production, for five years beyond the date when it previously insisted it had ended all such work.

According to an intelligence assessment from July 2005, Iran was aggressively trying to obtain the expertise, training, and equipment for developing nuclear weapons, a ballistic missile capable of reaching Europe, and biological and chemical weapons arsenals. The leak of the report came shortly after Iran notified the IAEA that it intended to resume nuclear fuel research (Guardian, January 4, 2006).

On September 2, 2005, the IAEA reported that Iran had produced about seven tons of the gas it needs for uranium enrichment since it restarted the process the previous month. A former UN nuclear inspector said that would be enough for an atomic weapon. In unusually strong language, an IAEA report also said questions remained about key aspects of Iran's 18 years of clandestine nuclear activity and that it still was unable “to conclude that there are no undeclared nuclear materials or activities in Iran” (Chicago Tribune, September 3, 2005).

On September 20, 2005, Iran threatened to resume uranium enrichment and bar open inspections of its nuclear facilities if the IAEA referred it to the Security Council for sanctions. Newly elected Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad defended his country's right to produce nuclear fuel in a fiery speech to the UN General Assembly and later raised worldwide concern about nuclear proliferation when he said, “Iran is ready to transfer nuclear know-how to the Islamic countries due to their need” (AP, September 15, 2005). Iran’s Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, repeated the proliferation threat the following April, telling the president of Sudan, "Iran's nuclear capability is one example of various scientific capabilities in the country ... The Islamic Republic of Iran is prepared to transfer the experience, knowledge and technology of its scientists" (New York Times, April 26, 2006).

Meanwhile, the head of IAEA disclosed that in 1987 Iran obtained through the Khan network the blueprint for casting uranium required in making the core of a nuclear warhead, but this alone was not enough for the manufacture of a weapon (The Guardian, November 19, 2005). A few days later, a former spokesman for the National Council of the Resistance of Iran, an Iranian opposition group, said that, beginning in 1989, North Korea helped Iran build dozens of underground tunnels and facilities for the construction of nuclear-capable missiles (ABC News, November 21, 2005).

Iran Admits Deception

Negotiations with Iran aimed at convincing the Iranians to halt their nuclear program began in 2003. Hassan Rowhani, the man who headed talks with Britain, France and Germany until 2005, told a meeting of Islamic clerics and academics that Iran played for time and tried to dupe the West after its secret nuclear program was uncovered by the Iranian opposition in 2002. He revealed that while talks were taking place in Teheran, Iran completed the installation of equipment for conversion of yellowcake at its Isfahan plant. Rowhani also said that on at least two occasions the IAEA obtained information on secret nuclear-related experiments from academic papers published by scientists involved in the work (Telegraph, March 5, 2006).

At this time, Iran also stepped up the pace of its weapons program by secretly enlarging the uranium enrichment plant at the Natanz site. A U.S. intelligence report also indicated that Iran’s facilities appeared to replicate those used to produce fissile material for nuclear weapons in Pakistan (Telegraph, January 22, 2006). Furthermore, Iran reportedly reached an agreement with North Korea to share with Teheran's nuclear scientists all the data the Koreans received from their nuclear test in October 2006.

The Security Council urged Iran on March 29, 2006, to suspend its uranium-enrichment activities and asked the director of the IAEA to report back on Iran's compliance within 30 days. The Council took its action in a presidential statement, a nonbinding declaration that needs unanimous support, which was possible only after the European authors of the final draft eliminated language suggesting that any Iranian drive to produce nuclear weapons would be a “threat to international peace and security” (New York Times, March 30, 2006).

In February 2007, an internal European Union document said there was no way to prevent Iran from enriching enough weapons-grade uranium to produce a bomb and that the Iranian program had been slowed by technical limitations rather than diplomatic pressure. The Financial Times quoted the document as saying: “At some stage we must expect that Iran will acquire the capacity to enrich uranium on the scale required for a weapons program” and that “the problems with Iran will not be resolved through economic sanctions alone” (Jerusalem Post, February 13, 2007).

In April 2007, Iranian President Ahmadinejad announced the Natanz facility had begun “industrial-scale” production of nuclear fuel using a new array of 3,000 centrifuges (AP, April 12, 2007). A week later, however, the head of Iran's atomic energy agency, Gholam Reza Aghazadeh, admitted that some of the centrifuges blew up during the enrichment process. Without giving a precise number, he said that the damages ranged from ten to twenty per cent. Aghazadeh said Iran ultimately hoped to install 50,000 uranium enriching centrifuges at the plant in Natanz. Aghazadeh added it would take four years for Iran to complete its own nuclear fuel cycle (Agence France-Presse, Haaretz, April 17, 2007). A month later, however, IAEA inspectors concluded that Iran appeared to have solved most of its technological problems and was starting to enrich uranium on a far larger scale than before (New York Times, May 15, 2007).

In June 2007, Iran’s interior minister said Iran had produced 100 kilograms (220 pounds) of enriched uranium. Experts say that about 500 kilograms (1,100 pounds) of enriched uranium would be needed for one bomb (AP, June 22, 2007). Iran’s spiritual leader’s representative to the Supreme National Security Council, Ali Larijani, said Tehran was committed to uranium enrichment and termed “nuclear fuel a strategic product for Iran.” He stated his country’s next strategic plan was to produce nuclear fuel locally (Reuters, December 20, 2007).

The National Intelligence Estimate

The highly publicized release of the National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) of the United States on November 2007 was portrayed in the media as an indication that the Bush Administration was falsely and hysterically whipping up opposition against a non-existent Iranian nuclear weapons program to impose draconian sanctions on Iran and possibly justify military intervention. The finding that received the most publicity was that Iran halted its nuclear weapons program in 2003 and America’s spy agencies believed the program was frozen. The report also said Iran was not expected to have the capability to build a weapon until the middle of the next decade.

Other nations immediately expressed skepticism of the NIE. The leaders of Great Britain, France and Germany, as well as the Gulf Arab States, have continued to voice their concerns based on their own independent evaluations of Iranian capabilities and intentions. French Foreign Minister Herve Morin, for example, stated on January 31, 2008, “Coordinated information from a number of intelligence services leads us to believe that Iran has not given up its wish to pursue its (nuclear) program,” and is “continuing to develop [it]” (Agence France-Presse, February 1, 2008). Israel also remained convinced Iran was still developing a weapon. On April 8, 2008, Ahmadinejad announced that Iran has started to install 6,000 new centrifuges at its uranium enrichment facility at the underground Natanz facility (Reuters, April 8, 2008). Iran's supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, added that Iran would not retreat in the face of demands by world powers for Tehran to halt sensitive nuclear work (Agence France-Presse, July 31, 2008).

On September 25, 2009, it was disclosed that Iran had a second fuel enrichment plant. The United States was apparently aware of the facility, but it was hidden from weapons inspectors (Jerusalem Post, September 25, 2009).

By January 2010, President Obama’s top advisers concluded that the 2007 NIE's conclusion that Iranian scientists ended all work on designing a nuclear warhead in late 2003 was inaccurate (New York Times, January 2, 2010). CIA director Leo Panetta said the United States suspected Iran had enough low-enriched uranium for two weapons (Washington Times, June 27, 2010). The CIA subsequently issued a public report indicating that Iran had installed centrifuges at the underground Fordow Fuel Enrichment Plant near Qom and initiated production of near 20-percent enriched uranium there.

The Iranian’s continued defiance of the international community prompted the Obama Administration to announce new sanctions against Iran. The following day Tehran announced it had begun enriching uranium to a higher level of purity, 20 percent, one step closer to producing weapons-grade uranium (Washington Post, February 11, 2010).

Stuxnet Slows Iranian Enrichment

In 2010, Iran announced that uranium enrichment at Natanz had stopped several times because of a series of technical problems. News reports suggested that as many as 1,000 centrifuges used to enrich uranium were damaged. It was subsequently reported that the destruction was likely caused by sabotage. In June, anti-virus experts discovered a sophisticated computer worm dubbed “Stuxnet,” which spreads via Microsoft Windows and targets Siemens industrial software and equipment used by Iran to control centrifuges used to enrich uranium at its Natanz plant. The New York Times subsequently reported that Stuxnet is part of a U.S. and Israeli intelligence operation called "Operation Olympic Games," initiated by President George W. Bush and expanded under President Barack Obama (New York Times, June 1, 2012).

At the time the worm was reportedly infecting the Iranian machines, IAEA cameras installed in Natanz recorded the sudden dismantling and removal of approximately 900–1000 centrifuges. These were quickly replaced, however, and Iran resumed uranium enrichment (Washington Post, February 16, 2011).

Although Stuxnet was discovered, it is believed that the United States, Israel and others continue to use cyberwarfare in an effort to sabotage Iran’s nuclear program.

Iran Approaches A Red Line

In March 2011, Robert Eihorn, the U.S. State Department's senior adviser for nonproliferation and arms control, said that Iran was moving closer to the threshold of being able to build a nuclear weapon but that it was not close to a “breakout” of being able to construct one quickly. While Israeli officials were mostly convinced Iran was committed to building a bomb, Eihorn expressed the view still held by American intelligence that Tehran's leaders had not yet decided whether to build nuclear weapons (AP, March 9, 2011).

Iran’s stockpile of higher-grade uranium rose nearly 50% between August and November 2012 levels, according to an IAEA assessment, and was approaching the 250 kg needed to make one atomic bomb (Reuters, November 27, 2012). By combining its stockpiles of low-enriched and higher-enriched uranium, Iran could make weapons-grade fuel of around 90% purity (Wall Street Journal, October 9, 2012). According to the Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS), Iran could make enough highly enriched uranium for one atomic bomb in as little as two to four months at its largest uranium-enrichment facility near Natanz (Wall Street Journal, October 9, 2012).

New concerns about Iran’s progress toward developing a weapon emerged in 2012 when satellite imagery detected evidence the Iranians were trying to clean up the area around Parchin, a military complex roughly 20 miles outside of Tehran. IAEA inspectors were given "partial access" to the base as a confidence-building measure in 2005, but have been denied permission since then to conduct further inspections. Analysts suspect Iran may be trying to erase radioactive traces that may have been associated with testing of a nuclear trigger (AP, March, 7, 2012). Following the report of the clean-up efforts, the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Russia and China called on Iran to allow UN inspectors to visit the Parchin military site. Iran denied the request and the accusations.

A second revelation providing new evidence of Iran’s intent to build a bomb was a diagram obtained by the IAEA and leaked to the press that indicated Iranian scientists had run computer simulations for a nuclear weapon. The IAEA reportedly has additional secret documents that also support the conclusion that Iran is working on a weapon (AP, December 1, 2012).

Another serious concern is that of Iran may be pursuing multiple routes (enriched uranium and plutonium) to build weapons. Iran has already been developing a plutonium-breeding heavy-water reactor in the city of Arak. Once again, the Iranians insist this reactor is for peaceful research purposes, but they have denied inspectors access to the plant since August 2011. In addition, U.S. intelligence is increasingly worried that the “peaceful” nuclear power plant at Bushehr could be used to reprocess the plant’s fuel rods, which contain enough weapons-grade plutonium to build a number of Nagasaki-type bombs. The plant has received heightened scrutiny since the discovery that Iran removed fuel rods that were supposed to be returned to Russia for storage. Iran says it returned the rods to the reactor’s core, but this claim hasn’t been verified (Wall Street Journal, December 6, 2012).

Israel has said that Iran could reach the point where it has enough fissile material to build a bomb as early as spring 2013. Prime Minister Netanyahu told the UN in September 2012 this would cross a “red line” for Israel. Many people believe that if no other nation acts, Israel will then feel compelled to use force to eliminate the Iranian threat (Reuters, November 27, 2012).

Interestingly, in December 2012, intelligence reports suggested Syria might be preparing to use chemical weapons against its people. President Obama announced that this would cross a red line and result in severe consequences for the Syrian regime. Imagine if Syria had nuclear weapons? If Syrian preparation of chemical weapons is serious enough to provoke a warning of U.S. action, shouldn’t Iranian construction of a nuclear weapon warrant similar concern?

The Obama Administration has insisted that the United States will know well in advance if Iran is preparing to build a bomb and can take appropriate action at that time. Israel and others have raised doubts about this and suggested at that point it may already be too late.

New Iranian Defiance and Advances in 2013

Once again defying the international community, Iran announced plans to use more sophisticated centrifuges that will allow it to enrich more uranium. The declaration came just before negotiations were to restart. Iran is now capable of quadrupling the enrichment of 20 percent uranium at its Fordo facility. (Bloomberg, January 25, 2013). One analyst called the Iranian advancemnt a "game-changer." Mark Fitzpatrick, a non-proliferation expert and former senior official at the U.S. State Department, said "If thousands of the more efficient machines are introduced, the timeline for being able to produce a weapon’s worth of fissile material will significantly shorten ... This won’t change the several months it would take to make actual weapons out of the fissile material or the two years or more that it would take to be able to mount a nuclear warhead on a missile, so there is no need to start beating the war drums." "But," he added, "it will certainly escalate concerns." (AP, January 31, 2013).

Israel's Institute for National Security Studies released a study that suggested that Iran is trying to go to the edge, but not beyond Israel's "red line," whch would trigger a military strike. "They have all the ingredients necessary to make a nuclear bomb," said Major General (ret.) Amos Yadlin, the Institute's director, but he added, "It would take four or six months for Iran to enrich enough military-grade uranium" to build a weapon (The Telegraph, February 4, 2013).

John Kerry, America's new Secretary of State, restated U.S. policy during his confirmation hearing on Janurary 24, 2013, "Our policy is not containment," Kerry said. "It is prevention, and the clock is ticking on our efforts to secure responsible compliance." (Bloomberg, January 25, 2013).

Iran has more than 12,000 centrifuges enriching uranium at its main Natanz facility. Iran's nuclear chief, Fereidoun Abbasi, said that 3,000 new centrifuges have been built to replace older versions at Natanz. The newer centrifuges can produce more enriched uranium in a shorter period of time (AP, March 3, 2013).

In March, Obama Administration officials expressed concern about a scientific-cooperation pact between North Korea and Iran that officials said could advance the nuclear and missile programs of both countries. The agreement, reached in September 2012, is similar to one North Korea signed with Syria in 2002, just as Pyongyang began secretly constructing a plutonium-producing nuclear reactor in Syria. The U.S. became more concerned with the agreement after North Korean nuclear and missile tests. According to the Wall Street Journal, "North Korea could provide Iran with a range of supplies for its nuclear program, including uranium ore, centrifuge machines and enriched uranium, according to these officials. Pyongyang also is seen as being ahead of Iran in developing the technologies needed to place an atomic warhead on a missile" (Wall Street Journal, March 8, 2013).

The United States is becoming increasingly concerned about the plutonium reactor in Arak. Tehran hopes to have a plutonium-producing reactor up and running in 2014. Both plutonium and enriched uranium can be used to produce a nuclear weapon. International concern has focused primarily on Iran’s uranium enrichment path because it is now only a step away from reaching weapons-grade. The plutonium reactor, however, is “of increasing concern,” U.S. envoy Joseph Macmanus told a recent meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency (AP, March 2013).

Following the latest failed negotiations to halt Iran's drive for a nuclear weapon, Tehran announced an expansion of its nuclear program. On April 8, 2013, Iran opened the Saghand 1 and 2 uranium mines in the central city of Yazd, and the Shahid Rezaeinejad yellow cake plant at Ardakan. The Iranian News Agency claimed the Ardakan plant is capable of producing 60 tons of raw uranium annually. "They (world powers) tried their utmost to prevent Iran from going nuclear, but Iran has gone nuclear," Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said in a speech at Iran's Atomic Energy Organization. "This nuclear technology and power and science has been institutionalized ... All the stages are in our control and every day that we go forward a new horizon opens up before the Iranian nation" (Reuters, April 9, 2013).

Iran shows no signs of being prepared to make concessions following the latest round of talks in April. In fact, Ali Asghar Soltanieh, Iran’s ambassador to the IAEA, reiterated that Iran was determined to pursue “all legal areas of nuclear technology, including full (nuclear) fuel cycle and enrichment technology, for peaceful purposes” under IAEA supervision (Jamejamoline, April 23, 2013).

In May 2013, the IAEA released its quarterly report on the Iranian nuclear program which showed the Islamic Republic accelerating the installment of advanced uranium enrichment equipment at Natanz. Iran has installed almost 700 advanced IR2m centrifuges at the plant, compared with 180 in February, prompting the agency to restate its ongoing concern about the "possible military dimensions" of Iran's nuclear project. The report also says the heavy water reactor in Arak will be completed and online by the end of 2014. One positive finding was that Iran has not started to operate new equipment at the Fordo facility, which, unlike Natanz, can enrich uranium to the sensitive 20% level. The report said Iran did not produce a significant amount of of ths enriched uranium so as, to approach but not cross the red line that might trigger a military response. A more disturbing development, however, it the revelation that Tehran has started to produce plutonium. Iran is also continuingt to conceal the military base at Parchin, covering it with asphalt and restricting the work of nuclear inspectors who believe it was used to test nuclear triggers. In the last three months, the IAEA disclosed that Iran increased its total stock of low-enriched uranium by almost 8 percent, to nearly 10 tons (BBC, AFP, Haaretz, New York Times, May 22, 2013).

Analysts had suggested that Iran was temporarily slowing its nuclear program in advance of Iranian elections. Meanwhile, several candidates for the presidency who were seen as possible reformers or moderates that might be willing to curb the nuclear program and work to end Iran's isolation were disqualified from running. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's hand-picked successor was one of those also disqualified. The June 2013 election was won by Hassan Rouhani who was depicted in the media as a “moderate,” but is a strong supporter of the Islamic Revolution and a close political ally of Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei. In his first press conference as president, Rouhani said there would be no further suspensions of the nuclear program and the head of Iran's Atomic Energy Organization reiterated that the “enrichment linked to fuel production will also not change." (Rouhani.Ir, June 18, 2013; Haaretz, July 3, 2013)

One group of experts predicts that if Iran continues on its current course, it will have the ability by mid-2014 “to dash to fissile material in one ore two weeks unless its production of 20 percent-enriched uranium is curtailed.” Iran could reach “breakout capacity” if “the number or efficiency of Iran's centrifuges unexpectedly increases, or if  Tehran has a secret operational enrichment site." (Wall Street Journal, March 27, 2013)

A New Nuclear Facility?

The National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI), a group that opposes the Iranian theocracy, has frequently been the source of information on previously unknown Iranian nuclear sites. On July 11, 2013, the group disclosed the discovery of a new site located in tunnels under mountains approximately six miles east of the town of Damavand and roughly 30 miles northeast of Tehran.

According to NCRI, the site has been under construction since 2006, and was completed recently. It consists of four tunnels constructed by companies with ties to the Ministry of Defense and the Iranian Revolutionary Guards. Reuters reported that satellite images released by the NCRI did not prove this was a nuclear facility. (Times of Israel, July 11, 2013)

Plutonium Bomb Threat Grows

Most of the attention of negotiators and the press has focused on Iran's enrichment activities and the progress toward building a bomb with enriched uranium; however, analysts believe a more imminent threat may come from a bomb made using plutonium. The Iranians have been building a heavy water reactor in Arak that can be used to produce 40 megawatts of power, but the spent fuel from the nuclear reactor contains plutonium, which can be used to produce a bomb. India, Pakistan and North Korea have all built plutonium-based bombs and U.S. and UN officials now believe that the Arak facility will be able to produce two plutonium bombs a year beginning as early as 2014. After learning of the construction of the facility in Arak, the UN Security Council passed a resolution in 2006 calling for Iran to cease construction. That demand was ignored (Washington Post, August 5, 2013).

Despite hopes that the new Iranian regime would change its policy, the IAEA found in its August 2013 report that the nuclear program continues to accelerate. According to the report, Iran's stockpile of 20% enriched uranium has reached 185.8 kilogram, an increase of only about 4 kilograms since May 2013, because Iran is continuing to convert 20% material into powder. This continues a pattern where Iran increases its enriched uranium supply, but keeps the total below the estimated 240-250 kilograms which, when further enriched to weapons grade, would be enough for one nuclear weapon. This is Israel's stated “red line.” The IAEA also found that Iran has now installed 1,008 advanced (IR-2M) centrifuges at Natanz but these centrifuges are not yet producing enriched uranium. Iran continues to make progress on the Arak (heavy water)  reactor (IR-40), but its anticipated start-up date (early 2014) is no longer achievable due to construction delays.

Meanwhile, Iran continues to stonewall the IAEA and prevent a complete inspection of its nuclear facilities.

In September 2013, President Obama asked Congress to approve military action against Syria following revelations about the use of chemical weapons by Syrian forces. Obama's hesitancy to act quickly after his own red line was crossed raised questions in Israel about his commitment to take action to stop Iran's nuclear program. The president, however, assured Prime Minister Netanyahu in a telephone conversation on August 31 that he remains determined to keep Iran from going nuclear (Jerusalem Post, September 2, 2013).

On June 11 2014, the head of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran announced that the Arak heavy water reactor was going to be redesigned to decrease plutonium production.  Ali Akbar Salehi stated that the reactor was going to be downsizing, and going from producing 9-10 kilograms of plutonuim per year to 1 kilogram or less. 

Interim Deal Struck

On November 23, 2013, the P5+1 and Iran reached a set of initial understandings that if followed, halts the progress of Iran's nuclear program and rolls it back in key respects. The agreement is hailed as only an interim deal, set for six months, that will give world powers extended time to work with the Islamic Republic on a permanent solution to the nuclear crisis.

The details of the deal stipulate that Iran committs to halt enrichment above 5%, neutralize its stockpile of near-20% uranium, halt progress on its enrichment capacity, halt progress on activities at the Arak reactor and provide daily access by IAEA inspectors at the Natanz and Fordow sites. In return for these steps, the international community will not impose new nuclear-related sanctions on Iran for at least six months and will suspend certain sanctionson gold and precious metals, Iran's auto sector, and Iran's petrochemical exports. (White House, November 23, 2013)

U.S. President Barack Obama, whose administration led the international effort for a deal with Iran, called the agreement "an important first step toward a comprehensive solution" of the Iranian nuclear dilemma and credited his administration's push for diplomacy and its adoption of stern economic sanctions for "a new path toward a world that is more secure."

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry pitched the deal to Congress saying: "We make sure that these sanctions don't get lifted in a way that reduces the pressure on Iran. The Iranian nuclear program is actually set backward and is actually locked into place in critical places." (Wall Street Journal, November 24, 2013)

Despite the Obama administration's optimistic outlook, there were many around the world who raised concerns about the West's overtures to Iran.

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said, "What was achieved in Geneva is not an historic agreement; it is an historic mistake ... This is a bad agreement. It gives Iran exactly what it wants: both substantial easing of sanctions and preservation of the most substantial parts of its nuclear program." (Prime Minister's Office, November 23, 2013)

Canadian Foreign Affairs Minister John Baird noted he was "deeply skeptical" of the interim deal and said that "Iran has not earned the right to have the benefit of the doubt." (Globe & Mail, November 24, 2013)

Conversely, Lebanese terrorist group Hezbollah hailed the deal as a "major victory" for Iran and a "defeat for the enemies" of the Islamic Republic. (Chicago Tribune, November 25, 2013)

The last details of this temporary agreement, known as the Joint Plan of Action (or JPOA) were finalized by the P5+1 on January 12, 2014, and pursuant to the agreement much of Iran's nuclear capabilities were supposed to be temporarily frozen after January 20.  Although this plan was originally rolled out in November of 2013, it was not ready to take effect or finalized until January 2014.  Iran agreed to this temporary halt in uranium production in exchange for foreign aid from the West in the form of sanctions relief totalling $6-$7 billion.  (New York TimesJanuary 12, 2014)

On July 2 after this temporary agreement was reached, a new round of negotiations took place and a date of July 20 was set for a possible permanent solution to be reached with all parties involved. However, on July 18 the P5+1 and Iran agreed to a four month extension of the talks as they did not believe that an agreement could be met.  The talks were extended until November 24 and this extension was been met with much criticism, but the White House released a statement that after the extension there is a "credible prospect for a comprehensive deal".  Although there is hope in this extension, officials doubt whether coming to an agreement is at all feasable.  (The Jerusalem PostJuly 19, 2014)

The IAEA's monthly report for July indicated that Iran had in fact cooperated with all aspects of scaling down it's nuclear capabilities agreed to in the Joint Plan of Action.  To read the full monthly report click here

Tensions between the US and Iran rose on July 22 when Washington Post journalist Jason Rezaian and his wife Yegani Salehi were detained in Iran by security officers dressed in plain clothes.  The two were taken to an undisclosed location and were not formally charged with any crimes.  Iranian media reported that they are spies relaying sensitive information to Washington DC.  The Iranian government announced that Rezaian and his wife were being charged with espionage and acting against Iranian national security in April 2015. 

In attempts to bridge the gaps between the wants of the Iranians and the security needs of the other players involved, negotiations again resumed on Thursday August 7.  US diplomats met Iranian leaders in Geneva in the first meeting since July 18 when it was decided that the current negotiations were fruitless and the agreement date was extended until November 24.  The first days of the talks were "constructive" according to White House officials, and after the weekend Iranian President Hassan Rouhani referred to Iranians who are opposed to striking a nuclear deal with the West as "political cowards".  Rouhani is in favor of an agreement because he sees the benefit that the lifting of heavy sanctions imposed on Iran would have.  At the same time however Iran's supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei downplayed and dismissed the value of direct negotiations with the P5+1 (specifically the United States).  In a conference with Foreign Ministry officials on August 13 Khamenei stated ""Some pretend that if we sit down with Americans at the negotiating table, many of the problems will be resolved. We knew that won't be the case but developments in the past year proved this reality once again". 

In light of these statements the director of the IAEA Yukiya Amano arrived in Tehran on August 17 for meetings with Iranian leaders and senior officials.  The IAEA has recently been given increased access to Iran's nuclear facilities pursuant to the interim agreement struck in November, and they are trying to determine the past, present, or future military capacity of the Iranian nuclear program.  During these meetings, Hassan Rouhani repeatedly emphasized that missiles were not on Iran's nuclear agenda and that Iran was willing to cooperate with the IAEA.  The meetings saw the two go over the previously agreed to joint cooperation plan, along with IAEA regulations. After returning, Mr Amano said that the meeting with Rouhani was "useful" and he recieved a firm commitment from the Iranian officials that they will cooperate with the IAEA's inquiry.  This meeting came before the August 25 deadline for Iran to implement transparency measures and provide relevant information to the IAEA on the military dimensions of it's nuclear program, and these meetings are seperate and unrelated to Iran's relations and meetings with the P5+1.  (Bloomberg, August 17 2014)

On August 16 Iran's Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif stated that the chances that an agreement will be met by November 24 "are low", adding that even if they came close to an agreement there would definitely be more time needed to get the fine details together.  The Iranians were not willing to comply with the extremely limited uranium enrichment capabilities or the reduction in centrifuges that the P5+1 were trying to impose on them during the July negotiations, and there has been minimal progress made since then.  (Tehran Times, August 16 2014)

Iran's parliament ousted their Science, Research and Technology Minister on August 20 for being too moderate and supporting pro-Western voices and ideas at Universities.  Reza Faraji Dana was elected just last year and this marks the first time that a Minister from Rouhani's cabinet has been impeached.  Dana was accused of supporting teachers who participate in pro-Western rallies and supporting student publications that question Muslim teachings and values.  After his impeachment, President Rouhani immediately appointed Reza Faraji Dana as Advisor on Science and Education.  (US News, August 20 2014)

Iran's Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif stated on August 21 that Iran would be willing to help the US and other nations fight and defeat ISIS in Iraq, but in return for their help they are asking that all sanctions related to Iran's nuclear program be completely lifted.  This offer is a response for the French Minister's call for all countries in the region, including Iran, to help stop the brutal ISIS menace. Iran is negotiating with several European governments to work out a way to possibly form joint action or sanctions against ISIS.  There is little chance that the United States will agree to the lifting of sanctions in order to gain Iran's help with ISIS.  (Business Insider, August 21 2014)

The IAEA deadline with Iran for them to implement transparency measures and fully disclose the possibe militarization of their nuclear capabilities came and went without a final word from Iran.  By the August 25 deadline, set in November, Iran had to accomplish a number of things in order to calm international concerns of their possible weaponization and militarization of their nuclear program.  This list of 5 demands from the IAEA has not been fully publicly disclosed, but it includes full disclosure of explosive experimentation, and statistical measurements of their nuclear facilities.  Statements from Iranian officials point to the fact that some of these demands have been met and others have not.  Iranian Foreign Minister Ali Akbar Salehi said that "They have 5 demands and questions...  some are completed, and some are in the process of being completed," providing no elaboration on this statement. 

Iran opened a new uranium conversion plant on Saturday August 23, in the central Iranian city of Isfahan.  The purpose of this plant is to facilitate the conversion of enriched uranium into a material that cannot be used to manufacture nuclear weapons.  The plant will convert the nuclear material uranium hexaflouride into uranium dioxide which can only be used in nuclear reactors as a power source. 

Renewed Distrust

Although Iran has seemed cooperative with the P5+1 and the IAEA thus far in pursuing a nuclear deal, August 2014 saw Iran begin to resist efforts to provide transparency to the international mechanisms tasked with determining the weaponization and militarization capabilities of it's nuclear program.  Iran has missed the major deadline of August 25 to comply with the list of 5 demands from the IAEA, and has told the UN that they cannot go back in to Iran's Parchin nuclear site and has made their nuclear scientists unnavailable for comment.  Additionally, and most alarmingly, a senior Iranian official confirmed on Wednesday August 27 that Iran has been conducting "mechanical" tests on a new, advanced centrifuge machine designed to refine uranium.  (New York Times, August 29 2014)

As the August 25 transparency deadline came and passed with no final word from Iran, world leaders realized that they will once again have to play hard-ball with the Iranian leadership.  Iran failed to submit reports to the IAEA detailing it's experiments with explosives that could be used for an atomic device, and studies relating to nuclear program yields.  The IAEA report for August 2014 included that Iran has effectively stopped cooperation with the IAEA and the international community.  Iran so far has carried out the minor components of the 5 transparency measures but still has to submit the most important portions including details of it's explosive expirementation and studies relating to nuclear program yields.  These are by far the most critical components of the transparency measures because they evaluate the potential military dimensions of the Iranian nuclear program.  The international community cannot be sure of what the intentions of the Iranian nuclear program are until they disclose these aspects, and by refusing to cooperate in this way Iran has completely shut off the international negotiations.  Especially because of the renewed activity at the Parchin nuclear base, the IAEA is extremely concerned about concealed Iranian nuclear activity that they have not reported as part of the transparency measures.    To read the complete IAEA report for August 2014, click here. 

Iranian officials have refused UN officials access to the Parchin nuclear base, on the claim that the agency has carried out multiple investigations there prior to 2005 and found no evidence that Iran is attempting to weaponize nuclear material.  The UN inspectors have been requesting access since 2005 and have been denied at every corner, with Iranian officials stating that they have not found anything there before so there is no use in looking again.  Iranian Defense Minister Hossein Dehgan stated on August 23 that "The agency carried out several visits to Parchin (before 2005), took samples and found nothing untoward... There is therefore no reason for new access to Parchin as nothing new has come up since the last inspections".  Although access to Parchin was not stated in the Iranian accord with the IAEA, IAEA inspectors have wanted to perform tests there for quite some time. In the past Iran has denied the IAEA and UN access to the Parchin station on the basis that it was being used as a military installation not a nuclear site.  Allowing access to Parchin would be an important step in earning the trust of the international community and would display even further the intention of the Iranian nuclear program.  According to a June 2014 report prepared by the IAEA, satelite images show fresh activity at Parchin since February 2014 (Middle East Eye, August 23 2014). 

Western states pushing Iran to scale down it's nuclear program got a rude awakening on August 27, when it was revealed that Iran had been undertaking "mechanical" tests on a new centrifuge system.  Iran claims that it's centrifuges are not for nuclear weaponization purposes and that it is manufacturing new ones to replace it's old and accident-prone centrifuges.  These new advanced centrifuges could allow Iran to come up with a nuclear weapon at a much faster rate than before.  The interim deal struck between Iran and the P5+1 in November 2013 states that Iran could not go beyond the current centrifuge research and development programs it had in place.  This restriction expressly prohibits the manufacture or testing of new centrifuges and centrifuge materials, and Iran has blatantly disregarded the agreement by carrying out new tests.  The IAEA's monthly report for August, released on August 20 made no mention of new centrifuge development taking place.  According to the IAEA document titled Centrifuge Research and Development Limitations in Iran the IAEA clearly state that "Iran’s development of more advanced centrifuges would also significantly complicate the verification of a long-term agreement.  In a breakout or cheating scenario, Iran would need far fewer of these advanced centrifuges in a clandestine plant to make weapon-grade uranium than in one using IR-1 centrifuges".  The international community acknowledges the fact that if Iran develops more advanced centrifuges it will be exponentially easier for it to create a nuclear weapon and pose a grave threat to the Western world.  (Reuters, August 27 2014)

In response to these actions taken by Iran, on August 29 President Barack Obama announced new sanctions directed against 25+ organizations, banks and individuals suspected of helping the Iranian government work towards acquiring nuclear weapons capabilities.  US Undersecretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence David Cohen stated that the sanctions are directed against organizations and individuals that "are involved in expanding Iran's proliferation program, support terrorism in the region, and help Iran evade US and international sanctions".  Some of the groups sanctioned by this action include: Asia Bank, Meraj Air, Caspian Air, Faylaca Petroleum, The Organization of Defensive Innovation and Research, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Mandegar Baspar Kimiya Co, and Jahan Tech Rooyan Pars.  Individuals sanctioned by this action include: Sayyed Jabar Hosseini (a senior Iranian official who has supported terrorist activities),  Abdelhak Kaddouri (the financial chief of the National Iranian Oil Co), Mohammad Javad, and Arman Imanirad. 

On Thursday September 4 2014 Japan transferred $1 billion in frozen oil assets to Iran, the first and second installments of the $2.8 billion promised to Iran as a part of the interim deal with the P5+1.  It is estimated that Iran has $100 billion in frozen funds abroad which it does not have open access to due to sanctions against Iran.  Iran has been slowly moving to meet the IAEA and P5+1 requirements, and the release of these funds serves as an incentive to continue on the path to nuclear security. 

Although the West would like to keep nuclear talks separate, Iran is continuing to attempt to gain concessions on their nuclear program by offering to help the rest of the world combat the ISIS threat. This prospect has not been brought up in official negotiations, but according to multiple official sources they have been privately voicing a willingness to help in exchange for a loosening of sanctions. It is unlikely that anything will come of this, as the November 24 deadline looms nearer and the P5+1 hone their focus in on stopping the potential military dimensions of Iran's nuclear program. 

Nuclear negotiations between Iran and the P5+1 resumed in New York City on September 17 2014, with the November 24 deadline looming on the horizon.  According to experts this is a "make-or-break" moment for the negotiations and if a deal is not reached by November 24, it is unlikely that negotiations will be extended once more.  Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif and President Hassan Rouhani travelled to New York on Tuesday September 16 in order to prepare for the relaunch of negotiations.  The negotiations stalled over the next few days, and on Friday the negotiations were called off due to "lack of progress". 

The quintessential issue in the Iran nuclear saga has been their number of centrifuges.  Ideally the P5+1 wants Iran to have no more than 1,500 centrifuges capable of operation, and Iran wants to keep their 9,400 machines currently running and expand more centrifuges as well.  The deal being considered during this round of negotiations would have included Iran being able to keep up to 4,500 centrifuges operational, but reduce the amount of uranium gas being fed into the centrifuges.  The reduction in uranium gas being fed into the centrifuges would give the world enough time to respond if it was discovered that Iran was in fact attempting to weaponize nuclear materials.  Israel objected to this plan, and Israeli officials believe that Iran is well on it's way to developing a nuclear bomb and subsequently igniting a "nuclear chain reaction" in the region. 

On October 2 John Kerry recieved a letter from 354 members of the United States House of Representatives expressing their collective concern that the United States needs to be harder on Iran during these negotiations.  The letter expressed the concern of the representatives regarding Iran's noncompliance thus far with the IAEA's transparency demands. 

A huge explosion tore through Iran's Parchin nuclear facility on October 6, 2014 leaving two workers dead.  The blast was so powerful that it shattered the windows in buildings up to 9 miles from the facility.  Allegedly the blast was an accident that occured when weapons materials were being transported. The Iranian government has refused the IAEA access to the Parchin nuclear facility since 2005. 

With the November 24 deadline coming quickly, the United States increased their concessions to Iran even more in order to attempt to gaurantee a nuclear deal.  On October 21 the Iranian Mehr News Agency reported that the Obama administration may change it's stance during the negotiations and allow Iran to have 4,000 operational centrifuges instead of the 1,500 that they had been pushing for in the negotiations so far.  The P5+1 met with Iranian officials multiple times in Vienna during October, but large gaps between the groups still remained. On November 5 it was reported that during negotiations the United States had agreed to let Iran have 6,000 centrifuges to enrich uranium instead of the 4,000 previously agreed to.  The United States negotiating team has repeatedly given ground on the centrifuge issue, starting earlier in 2014 with an acceptable number of 500, then 1,500, then 4,000. 

The Obama administration, desperate for a deal, continued to bend to Iran's will on October 22 when it was announced that the administration considered bypassing congress and lifting the majority of sanctions against Iran as part of the negotiation process.  Reports from US officials detailed that the President was considering using his executive powers to lift sanctions on Iran in an attempt to spur a deal.  Members of Congress were visibly upset about the idea of the President circumventing them on this issue and publicly condemned the idea.  This plan would have only been a temporary lifting of sanctions, and administration officials have clarified that Congress will have the final say in any lifting of sanctions that is more permanent. Non-proliferation groups such as the Arms Control Association have come out in favor of the President using unilateral executive authority to push a deal with Iran, and claim that it may be the only way to reach a deal. 

Israeli officials have expressed their concerns of a bad nuclear deal with Iran on many occasions during the negotiation process.  Prime Minister Netanyahu stated on October 20 that a nuclear capable Iran "Is a threat to the entire world, and, first and foremost, this is a threat to us".  Israelis are worried that the P5+1 deal with Iran may leave Iran as a nuclear threshold state with many active centrifuges that it could use to create nuclear weapons.  Israel's ambassador to the US Ron Dermer stated in a speech on October 27 2014 that "you don’t have to be a nuclear expert to understand that reducing pressure on the world’s most dangerous regime and leaving it on the threshold of developing the world’s most dangerous weapons is not a good deal. The international community is prepared to leave Iran with thousands of centrifuges to enrich uranium – when Iran doesn’t even need a single centrifuge to have peaceful nuclear energy". 

As of December 2014, Iran had still not carried out the IAEA's transparency measures that they were supposed to have implemented by August 25.  Director General of the IAEA Yukiya Amano said on October 20 that "In order to resolve all outstanding issues, it is very important that Iran implements, in a timely manner, all practical measures agreed under the Framework for Cooperation".

On October 21, Iranian news agency Fars News reported that 2 "spies" had been discovered, detained, and arrested near Iran's first nuclear power plant in Bushehr.  According to Iranian officials these individuals were likely foreign agents who were attempting to gather intelligence and information and use it with maliscious intent.   

Undersecretary of State Wendy Sherman, the United States chief nuclear negotiator with Iran, gave a speech on October 23 in which she stated that "we have made impressive progress on issues that originally seemed intractable".  However, she clarified that although progress has been made, "this is a puzzle with many interlocking pieces," and the negotiations will take time and increased effort on all fronts for a deal to come to fruition.  A senior administration official stressed that the negotiations would take "every single minute of the time through November 24" (The Wall Street Journal, October 23, 2014)

Throughout the negotiations process Iran continued to prevent IAEA nuclear investigators and officials from gaining access to Iranian nuclear sites or scientists.  This refusal to cooperate has effectively crippled the negotiations and peace process, and made it exceedingly complicated to reach agreements between the P5+1 and Iranian leaders.  With the November 24 2014 deal deadline approaching, at the end of October Iranian officials once again denied IAEA inspectors access to their nuclear sites including Parchin, where a suspicious explosion had occured recently.  Director General of the IAEA, Yukiya Amano stated on October 31 2014 that "almost no progress" had been made over the course of 2014 involving the allegations of Iranian nuclear weapons development. 

In an agreement reached through negotiations in Vienna, on November 4 Iran tentatively agreed to ship a significant portion of it's uranium stockpile to Russia, where it will be processed into specialized fuel rods that can only be used for nuclear power purposes and not for a weapon.  This agreement has not been made official, and the day after the announcement Iranian Foreign Ministry officials dismissed news of this tentative agreement as "all speculations and rumors by some foreign media".  Diplomats and officials involved in the negotiations however have faith that this may be a major breakthrough in regards to reigning in Iran's nuclear capabilities.  As November 24 moves closer, the P5+1 are still hopeful for a deal that will not leave Iran on the cusp of a nuclear weapon. 

It was revealed in early November 2014 that during the nuclear negotiations between Iran and the P5+1 President Obama wrote a secret letter to Iranian leader Ayatollah Khamenei expressing their mutual interest in defeating the Islamic State.  Cooperation between the United States and Iran is extremely rare, and the nuclear negotiations during 2014 represent the most sustained period of diplomacy between the two countries since 1979's Islamic Revolution.  This is the fourth letter that Obama has written to Khamenei, and these suggest that the United States is genuinely interested in pursuing a mutually beneficial relationship with Iran with further cooperation if the nuclear issue is sorted out. 

In an IAEA report released on November 7 2014, which can be found here , the agency reported that Iran "has not provided any explanations that enable the Agency to clarify the outstanding practical measures, nor has it proposed any new practical measures in the next step of the Framework for Cooperation".  According to the report Iran has failed to answer almost every critical question about the potential military dimensions of it's nuclear program, and has continued to thwart further investigations into the program.  The report also detailed that Iran's low-enriched uranium stockpile had grown 8% since the previous report, now totalling 8.4 tons.  The report states that no progress has been made into the investigation since the last report was published. 

New information released on November 7 showed that the Iranian nuclear program may be more advanced than the international community previously thought. The existance of one Iranian explosive chamber to carry out explosive tests has been known for some time, but an Iranian dissident group claimed to have evidence of a second explosive chamber, possibly hidden at Iran's secretive Parchin nuclear complex. Officials from the National Council of Resistance of Iran stated that this is an issue that the IAEA should pursue immediately, claiming that "Today’s information uncovers a simple truth: The clerical regime is ceaselessly and secretly forging ahead with the military dimensions of its nuclear program and has no intention whatsoever of abandoning that program" (Free Beacon, November 7 2014).

Seperate from the P5+1 negotiations, on November 11 Russia forged their own nuclear deal with Iran, prompting anxiety and questions from the West.  Russias state nuclear power agency, Rosatom struck a deal with Iranian officials to build multiple new nuclear reactor units in Iran.  The deal calls for the immediate construction of two nuclear reactors at the Russian built Bushehr power plant and the construction of two more at a later date, and four more in unspecified locations around Iran.  The construction of these new facilities opens the way for Iranian domestic production of power for their own nuclear reactors.  As a part of the agreement Russia indicated that it would discuss with the Iranian leadership "the feasibility of fabricating fuel rods in Iran, which will be used at these power units".  Domestically producing these fuel rods would likely allow Iran to build up a nuclear infrastructure and creep them closer to developing a nuclear bomb, something that the international community has obviously attempted to avoid at all costs.  In order to curb Western anxieties about this nuclear material being used for weaponry purposes, Russian officials have assured the international community that these reactors would be constructed and operated under the United Nations nuclear watchdog agency.  Russia will provide the nuclear material for these new reactors, as it does currently.  (LA Times, November 11 2014). Construction began on these new reactors in January 2016.

November saw negotiations continue between the P5+1 and Iran in Oman and Vienna with little progress made.  Every day a different spokesperson from the negotiations claimed to news outlets that negotiations were going well, but there were still wide gaps between the nuclear ambitions of Iran and the safety concerns of the Western world.  In the weeks leading up to the November 24 deadline, both parties hinted that more time may be required to come to an agreement in negotiations that had already been extended for 4 months in July. 

All parties involved returned to negotiations in Vienna on November 17, a mere week before the proposed deadline for a deal.  According to experts and individuals close to the negotiations, chances of finding mutual ground and coming to a more permanent agreement are extremely low. 

The United States officially came out with their stated goal for the negotiations on November 20.  Secretary of State John Kerry clarified that the reached agreement should degrade the weaponization capability of the Iranian nuclear program so that it will take at least one year for them to develop a nuclear weapon. The P5+1 are pushing for this minimum "breakout time" of at least one year because it will allow the international community sufficient time to respond, should it be revealed that Iran is begining to develop a nuclear weapon. 

A Second Extension

It was revealed late in the afternoon on the deadline of November 24 that the two parties still had significant differences to work out and that no comprehensive nuclear deal had been reached.  After months of intense negotiations between Iran and world superpowers from the P5+1, the two groups could not come to an agreement by the deadline agreed to in July.  The nuclear discussions were once again extended, this time for seven months.  The negotiating teams hope to have a draft agreement by March 1 2015, with a finalized agreement on the table ready to be accepted by all parties in July. Until a more comprehensive deal is reached, the conditions and stipulations of the current temporary deal will remain in effect.  As a part of this extension, Iranian officials are expected to allow United Nations inspectors increased access to workshops where Iranian centrifuges and rotors are built, in an effort to increase the transparency of their nuclear program and facilities.  Negotiators are optimistic about prospects for an agreement in the coming months.  John Kerry stated that new ideas had been brought to the table during the last days of negotiations and that the P5+1 "would be fools to walk away" now.  After the announcement of the extension, Iran's Minister of Foreign Affairs Mohammad Javad Zarif smiled and stated during a press conference that "we don't need seven months."  The Iranian government came out of these negotiations victorious, ensuring the continuation of the sanctions relief that has brought in $700 million per month since the deal was reached, and ensuring that they can still continue their covert nuclear operations without having to open their doors and give in to increased international scrutiny of their nuclear facilities (New York Times, November 25 2014).

After harping for months that no deal is better than a bad deal, Israeli officials were happy with the outcome, favoring an extension of the talks over a bad deal that would leave Iran free to pursue their nuclear ambitions.  According to Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, this extension of the negotiations gives the world " the opportunity to continue the economic pressures that have proven to be the only thing that have brought Iran to the table."  Israeli officials expect a fresh round of crippling sanctions against Iran to come from the United States in response to a deal not being reached.  Netanyahu stated that economic sanctions "are the route that needs to be taken" when dealing with Iran, and word of a nuclear extension brought a sense of relief to senior Israeli officials (Washington Post, November 24).

Delivering his first remarks on the extension, on November 25 Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei stated that the Western nations had "failed to bring [Iran] to it's knees."  According to Khamenei's personal website, during a meeting with many of Iran's top Muslim clerics he stated that "In the nuclear issue, America and colonial European countries got together and did their best to bring the Islamic Republic to its knees, but they could not do so — and they will not be able to do so."  (New York Times, November 25 2014)

Following the announcement of an extension of the negotiations, South Korea made a $500 million payment to Iran for crude oil imports.  Under the interim agreement Iran is allowed to access $700 million per month in sanctions relief in the form of oil payments from their frozen international bank accounts.  According to official documents, Iran sold over $1.3 billion in oil to South Korea during 2014.  A senior South Korean official told the International Business Times that "we had to play our role, as the international community agreed to unblock some of Iran's assets."  (International Business Times, November 26 2014)

On November 30 2014, less than one week after the negotiations failed to bring about a more permanent solution to the Iranian nuclear dilema, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei stated to a group of senior Iranian Navy officials that "our armed forces should continuously improve their (combat) readiness, irrespective of political calculations".  Khamenei's call for increased combat readiness and improvement regardless of the diplomatic and political situation was a bold move in the face of possible increased US sanctions and international scrutiny of Iranian military activities.  (Reuters, November 30 2014)

With the stipulations from the temporary agreement still in force until at least the end of June 2015, the IAEA requested more funds on December 3 to continue their monitoring of Iran's nuclear program.  The IAEA detailed in a confidential note to members that they would need an estimated additional 4.6 million Euros ($5.67 million) in external contributions in order to continue their monitoring practices in the same way as before. Yukiya Amano, the director of the IAEA stated that "[any] member states which are in a position to do so to make the necessary funding available for the continuation of the agency’s monitoring and verification."  (Reuters, December 3 2014)

The IAEA announced on December 11 that they had indeed secured the funding required to continue their monitoring of Iran's nuclear program.  At an IAEA meeting that week international donors including large contributors the Netherlands and Norway pledged more than the expected 4.6 million Euros, demonstrating the international support for avoiding a nuclear Iran. 

Despite the international scrutiny of the nuclear program, on December 7 2014 Iran's President Hassan Rouhani announced a military spending hike of 33.5% in the state's 2015 budget, increasing spending to 282 trillion Iranian rials.  Iran's 2015 general budget represents only a 6% increase in spending over 2014.  (Reuters, December 7 2014)

In allegations that had been previously unreported, in December 2014 US officials accused Iran of breaching the nuclear sanctions placed on them by the United Nations by secretely seeking to acquire parts for a heavy water reactor that could be used in the production of nuclear weapons grade materials.  US and international monitors observed "no recent downturn in [Iranian] procurement" activities according to a November 7 report made public in early December.  The extension of the negotiations was good news for countries looking to do business with Iran, and they took advantage of the favorable diplomatic climate.  These accusations were taken with a grain of salt by the international community, as news like this usually takes a very long time to be released so the accusations may predate the interim agreement, meaning that Iran did not violate the agreement at least in this way.  (Foreign Policy, December 8 2014)

Negotiations between Iranian officials and the P5+1 resumed on December 17 in Geneva.  After the first day of negotiations, Iranian officials claimed that the talks were proceeding in a "good atmosphere." On December 17 officials from Iran and various countries involved in the P5+1 efforts spent over six hours in the negotiating room, speaking on all topics but mostly covering sanctions. 

The IAEA report for the end of 2014 included details that showed that Iran was cooperating in certain aspects with the temporary deal agreed to in January 2014.  According to the report, the Iranians kept their word and continued to not enrich uranium over 5%, and had also not made any other technological advances at their nuclear facilities. 

US Secetary of State John Kerry and Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif reconvened with their respective negotiating teams in early January 2015 in Geneva, holding extensive and beneficial meetings.  On Wednesday January 14 Kerry and Zarif had "substantive meetings for approximately five hours" and discussed "a broad range of issues with a small group of staff from each side" as reported by official sources.  Following this meeting, after postponing his flight to Bulgaria Kerry returned to the hotel where negotiations were taking place and held a personal, unscheduled meeting with Zarif.  This round of negotiations seemed to be going well, with Kerry and Zarif taking a break to stroll around Downtown Geneva. Before the negotiations began Secretary Kerry declared that "We are at a juncture where most of the issues are now getting fleshed out and understood."  (Reuters, January 14 2015)

While the negotiating teams were hard at work on January 14th, the Iranian government made a troubling announcement.  Iranian President Hassan Rouhani announced during a visit to the Bushehr nuclear power facility that the facility is to be expanded and that two new nuclear power facilities are to be built in the vicinity.  The goal of these power plants is to increase nuclear power output according to the Iranian government.  Rouhani firmly stated that "construction of two new power plants will increase the capacity of Bushehr province's power generation to 2,000 megawatts."  (Fars News, January 14 2015)

The P5+1 and Iran continued nuclear negotiations into February 2015, after making limited progress during January.  The negotiator from France, Nicolas de la Riviere told reporters that "The mood was very good, but I don't think we made a lot of progress."  (Reuters, January 18 2015)

During US President Barack Obama's January 2015 State of the Union address, he warned the new Republican controlled legislature against levying new sanctions on Iran, lest they unravel the progress that has been made in the negotiations so far. The President told the legislators that "New sanctions passed by this Congress, at this moment in time, will all but guarantee that diplomacy fails—alienating America from its allies; and ensuring that Iran starts up its nuclear programme again."  House Speaker John Boehner invited Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to address Congress in January 2015, in hopes of swaying them away from voting in favor of a bad nuclear deal with Iran.  Netanyahu requested a meeting with President Obama during his visit and was given a public rejection, with National Security Council spokeswoman Bernadette Meehan releasing a statement that read "As a matter of long-standing practice and principle, we do not see heads of state or candidates in close proximity to their elections, so as to avoid the appearance of influencing a democratic election in a foreign country." (Foreign Policy, January 22 2015)

Democrats in Congress gave Obama and the negotiating teams substantial breathing room on January 27, when they announced that they would hold off on voting or moving any legislation forward that might tighten any penalties or sanctions against Iran until after March 24. Congressmen and government officials hope that this two month timeframe will be enough for the negotiating teams to come to a comprehensive and complete framework for ensuring Iran's nuclear program has only peaceful applications.  Obama has stated that he will veto any sanctions bill that arrives on his desk while the negotiators are still attempting to reach a deal. 

The Iranian Foreign Ministry appointed a new Iranian ambassador to the United Nations on January 28, 2015, Gholamali Khoshroo.  Khoshroo is a career Iranian diplomat with close ties to some of the Iranian leadership including former President Mohammad Khatami and family ties with current President Hassan Rouhani.  Prior to being appointed to this position, Khoshroo was serving as the Iranian diplomat to Switzerland.  The Iranian Foreign Ministry released a statement in which they assured international leaders that Khoshroo had thus far played an integral part of the negotiations and has been active in Iran's nuclear discussion with the P5+1. 

The US Senate Banking Committee approved the Nuclear Weapon Free Iran Act of 2015 on January 29, 2015, by an 18-4 vote.  The bipartisan legislation was introduced by Senators Mark Kirk (R-IL) and Robert Menendez (D-NJ), and although it did not impose any new sanctions on Iran, it increased the pressure on the Iranian regime.  The act set in stone that if there is no agreement reached by the June 30 deadline all of the sanctions that were waived with the acceptance of the interim agreement would be put back in place.  In addition, the act imposes monthly escalating sanctions begining in August should the negotiating teams fail to reach an agreement.  The bill provides for President Obama to be able to shoot down any sanctions activity, should he feel that it would interfere with reaching a comprehensive deal.  The Nuclear Weapon Free Iran Act of 2015 will be passed on to the Senate for a vote, and if approved may still be vetoed by President Obama.  (

Still wary of the prospect of a bad deal between the P5+1 and Iran, unnamed Israeli officials blasted the US negotiating team on February 1, 2015, claiming that they have given the Iranians 80% of what they want during the negotiations, in return for very little.  Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu is scheduled to deliver a speech to Congress on March 3, where he will warn them of the dangers of a bad nuclear deal with Iran.  Netanyahu sees a nuclear capable Iran as the greatest threat to Israel, and is prepared to do everything in his power to ensure that Iran does not acquire weapons-grade nuclear materials.  During a visit to soldiers wounded in an attack by Hezbollah on January 28, 2015, Netanyahu declared that "We are in a continuous struggle with Iran which is opening new fronts against us, which is engaged in terrorism in the Middle East and throughout the world.  This is the same Iran that the world powers are now working toward an agreement that would leave in its hands the ability to develop a nuclear bomb. That is an agreement we are opposed to."  (Jerusalem Post, January 30, 2015)  In a campaign speech on February 9, Netanyahu stated that he is "determined to go to Washington and present Israel's position before the members of Congress and the American people."  (Yahoo, February 9, 2015)

Netanyahu's invitation to speak to Congress was very controversial.  He was invited to speak by House Speaker John Boehner, not President Obama, and was actually denied a request for a meeting with the President while in town delivering the speech.  Spokespeople for the White House defended their rejection of his request, citing that it would be innapropriate to meet with a foreign leader so close to their country's elections.  Critics argued that the invitation was being used as political showboating and manipulation, with the Republicans just inviting Netanyahu to bash President Obama and using him to get a tougher deal on Iran.  It is unprecedented for Congress to conduct foreign relations bypassing the President like this, and Congressional Democrats were upset because Boehner, a Republican, invited Netanyahu without consulting with President Obama first.  Many Democrats in the House and Senate have said that they will be skipping Netanyahu's speech, including the US's most senior lawmaker Senator Patrick Leahy, Delegate Eleanor Holmes Norton, Representative Jim McDermot, and Senator Bernie Sanders.  A letter petitioning to postpone the speech was circulated around Capital Hilll on February 9, by Representatives Keith Ellison, Steve Cohen and Maxine Waters.  The letter does not state that the undersigned members will not be attending, but rather just petitions for a postponement of the speech.  (Bloomberg, February 9, 2015)

Speaking under the condition of anonymity, officials close to the negotiations in early February in Vienna detailed to the Associated Press that US and Iranian negotiating teams may be moving closer to a compromise on Iran's nuclear program.  The compromise focuses on neutralizing much of Iran's capacity to make nuclear weapons by reducing the amount of nuclear material that their centrifuges can produce, while keeping a good amount of their centrifuges running.  The compromise would also include stipulations such as: Iran would only be allowed to store a certain amount of uranium gas which would be monitored by UN agencies, and Iran would commit to exporting most of it's enriched uranium.  (The Washington Post, February 4, 2015)

Iran's Foreign Minister Zarif made it clear in early February that he was not in favor of another extension to the negotiations, and that this may be the last chance for diplomatic negotiations to work.  Zarif claimed that “I do not believe another extension is in the interests of anybody, as I did not believe this extension was either necessary or useful,” and said that the negotiators needed to “seize this opportunity,” emphasizing that “it may not be repeated.”  In a seperate interview on February 8, Secretary of State Kerry claimed that it would be “impossible” for another extension to the negotiations to be put in place if no solution is reached this time around.  (The New York Times, February 9, 2015)

Speaking at a ceremony commemorating Space Technology Day in Iran on February 17, 2015, Iranian President Hassan Rouhani made the claim that the Iranians had made “highly important progress in the nuclear field” in the pursuit of peaceful nuclear energy.  Rouhani complained however that “the negotiations receive so much attraction and hue and cry that they overshadow these activities,” but despite this, the Iranian nuclear program is “running at a higher speed” according to Rouhani.  He rebuked the United States attempts to sanction them and derail their nuclear program, stating that “we don’t and will not take permission from anyone to make progress in science and knowledge.”  (Fars News, February 17, 2015)

A report prepared by the IAEA and released by Reuters on February 19, 2015, claimed that Iran was and still is stalling the United Nations nuclear inquiry and deliberately complicating efforts to reach a deal with the P5+1.  Included in the report was evidence that Iran was continuing to refuse cooperation with two aspects of the long-running nuclear investigation; aspects that Iran committed to have completed by August 2014.  In the report, IAEA officials stated that “Iran has not provided any explanations that enable the agency to clarify the outstanding practical measures,” referring to the scope of Iranian explosive tests and other allegations.  A new round of talks between Iranian and US officials began on February 20, 2015.  (Reuters, February 20, 2015)

Secretary of State John Kerry addressed the people concerned about a bad deal and it's impact on February 23, 2015, when he stated that “Anybody running around right now, jumping in to say, ‘Well, we don’t like the deal,’ or this or that, doesn’t know what the deal is...  There is no deal yet. And I caution people to wait and see what these negotiations produce.”  (New York Times, February 23, 2015)

The National Coalition of Resistance of Iran, an Iranian dissident group with ties to the nuclear program who had in the past reported claims of hidden nuclear sites, claimed in late February 2015 that the Iranians had been hiding an undisclosed uranium enrichment facility under the suburbs of Tehran since 2008.  The NCRI claimed that the site, known as "Lavizan-3,"  had been used for the past number of years for enrichment with advanced IR-2m and IR-4 centrifuge machines.  Accusations by the NCRI are taken seriously, since in the early 2000's NCRI claims assisted in exposing the now public Natanz uranium enrichment facility and Arak heavy water facility.  The NCRI has officials working in the Iranian government and with the nuclear program within their ranks, and released their discovery of the hidden site following years of intelligence gathering.  (The Washington Times, February 24, 2015)

Legislation titled the “Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act of 2015” was introduced into the Senate on February 27, 2015, by Senators Corker, Menendez, Graham, and Kaine.  To read the text of the Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act of 2015, click here.  The bill would require the text of any agreement reached between the US and Iran to be submitted for Congressional review, and would prohibit the lifting of Iranian sanctions during the given 60 day congressional review period.  President Obama threatened to veto the legislation.  To read Senator Corker's response to Obama's threat of a veto, click here.  A letter penned by the House Foreign Affairs Committee Chairman Ed Royce was circulated among his colleagues following the introduction of this legislation, stressing the need for congressional involvement in reaching a nuclear deal with Iran.  In the letter, Royce states that his peers are “prepared to evaluate any agreement to determine its long-term impact on the United States and our allies.”  To read the full letter, click here (The Hill, March 2, 2015)

The IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano stated on March 2, 2015, that Iran had recently slowed their pace of cooperation with the IAEA and P5+1, raising concerns that a deal may not be reached by the end of March.  According to the IAEA Iran had still not implemented two sets of transparency measures that they were required to have implemented by August 2014.  (Reuters, March 2, 2015)

Information was leaked in early March that during negotiations the U.S. was only pushing for Iranian nuclear activity to be halted for the next ten years. The emerging agreement was lambasted by critics, claiming that after the ten year period we would be back in the same situation, in a similar political climate, without any significant changes.  Two days after this information was leaked, Iranian negotiator Mohammed Javad Zarif stated that this ten year freeze on nuclear operations was “unacceptable,” but stated that the negotiations would continue. 

Netanyahu's speech to a joint session of Congress on March 3, 2015 was met with a mixed reaction. The Prime Minister of Israel delivered an impassioned address in which he made his case against an agreement with Iran that would leave them with a breakout time of only one year, and thousands of operational centrifuges in order to make nuclear materials. The deal taking shape through negotiations was very dangerous for Israel according to Netanyahu, who stated that the deal being considered at the time “Doesn’t block Iran’s path to the bomb. It paves Iran’s path to the bomb.”  The Prime Minister was heavily critical of the unfolding deal between the P5+1 and Iran, but according to President Barack Obama, Netanyahu did not provide any alternative solutions to come to a nuclear agreement. Many people were unhappy with Netanyahu coming to address Congress because they viewed the speech as a political stunt, taking place so close to Israeli elections. While speaking to Congress Netanyahu addressed these concerns, stating that “I deeply regret that some perceive my being here as political.  That was never my intention.”  House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi sad that she was “near tears” during the speech, because she was “saddened by the insult to the intelligence of the United States,” and “the condescension toward our knowledge of the threat posed by Iran.”  (The New York Times, March 4, 2015)

While the Israeli Prime Minister was attempting to convince Congress not to approve a bad deal that would leave a nuclear capable Iran, U.S. Secretary of State Kerry and Iranian Foreign Minister Zarif met in Switzerland to continue negotiations to reach a final agreement. When asked if an agreement was close, Zarif stated on March 3 that “We'll try, that's why we are here.  The only way to move forward is through negotiations.”  Speaking about the negotiations, German Foreign Minister Steinmeier confidently said that “In ten years of negotiations, we never achieved as much progress as we have made this year.”  (Reuters, March 3, 2015)

Approaching the last weeks until the deal deadline, on March 3, the United States negotiating team laid out their “bottom lines,” or areas where the United States was not willing to budge (Yahoo News, March 4, 2015).  These bottom lines include that:

  • Any deal struck should provide for a minimum breakout time of one year and freeze Iranian nuclear activities for at least ten years
  • Iran should not produce weapons-grade plutonium at the Arak reactor
  • Iran should not use the Fordo nuclear plant to enrich uranium (leaving only the Natanz plant for uranium enrichment)
  • Iran should reduce their number of operating centrifuges significantly
  • Iran should agree to full inspections of nuclear and production facilities, as well as mines and mills
  • Unde the agreement sanctions against Iran must be phased out over time

The second to last round of negotiations wrapped up in Gevena, Switzerland on March 4, 2015.  China's envoy to the P5+1 negotiations with Iran stated later that day that the negotiations could be “moving into the final stage.”  John Kerry traveled to Saudi Arabia the next day for a brief visit to reassure the Arab allies of the United States that the U.S. will work with them to counter Iranian influence in the region whether or not a nuclear accord is reached by the March 17 deadline. While in Saudi Arabia, Kerry facilitated talks between the Foreign Ministers of members of the Gulf Cooperation Council at Riyadh Air Base.  The final round of talks began on March 15, 2015.  (The Washington Post, March 5, 2015)

A group of fourty-seven Republicans gave the Iranian leadership a lesson in balance of power principles on March 5, 2015, informing them in a letter that any agreement struck without Congressional approval is simply an executive agreement which could be easily overturned by the next U.S. President.  2016 Republican Presidential candidate hopefuls Marco Rubio, Ted Cruz, and Rand Paul all signed on to the letter.  Not only was the letter meant to discourage the Iranian regime from signing the current deal, it was also meant to encourage President Barack Obama to consider Congressional advice if a deal is to be reached.  Experts and Washington insiders said that this letter sent by Congressional Republicans to Iran in an attempt to thwart a nuclear agreement was unprecedented, with the only somewhat similar examples coming 40 years prior during the Nixon and Carter administrations.  To read the full text of the letter, click here(Politico, March 9, 2015)

Vice President Joe Biden delivered scathing criticism to the authors of the letter in response, stating that the act severely undercut presidential authority and was “beneath the dignity” of the Senate.  Biden said that “In thirty-six years in the United States Senate, I cannot recall another instance in which senators wrote directly to advise another country—much less a longtime foreign adversary—that the President does not have the constitutional authority to reach a meaningful understanding with them.”  President Obama claimed that the signatories to the letter were effectively aligning themselves with the Iranian hard-line conservatives who are vehemently opposed to a nuclear deal.  (Wall Street Journal, March 9, 2015)

Iranian Foreign Minister Zarif issued a response to the letter in which he offered to mediate talks between Congress and Obama, and called the letter “unprecedented and undiplomatic.” Iran's Ayatollah Khamenei posted on social media that the letter was indicative of a “collapse in ethics” of American politics. (Politico, March 12, 2015)

According to a NBC/Wall Street Journal poll released in March 2015, Americans were very skeptical as to whether the negotiations will actually limit Iran's ability to produce nuclear materials.  The poll found that 24% of Americans think that the negotiations will make a difference in preventing Iran from eventually obtaining nuclear weapons material, and 74% think they will not make a difference.  (Wall Street Journal, March 9, 2015)

On March 12, 2015, President Barack Obama sent Congress a letter stating that he was extending the March 1995 declaration of a national emergency with respect to Iran. In the letter the President expressed hopefulness, stating that, "This marks the first time in a decade that Iran has agreed to take [...] specific actions that stop the advance and roll back key elements of its nuclear program." Despite this, he also addressed his concerns that "the crisis between the United States and Iran resulting from certain actions and policies of the Government of Iran has not been resolved," and that "certain actions and policies of the Government of Iran are contrary to the interests of the United States." Citing these reasons, President Obama sent notice to the Federal Register in March 2015 to extended the declaration of a national emergency with respect to Iran for another year. To read the full text of the letter, Click here. (The White House, March 12, 2015)

Seperate from nuclear negotiations, the five permanent UN Security Council members -Britain, China, France, Russia and the U.S.- plus representatives Germany and Iran begun talks in mid March aimed at lifting UN sanctions on Iran if a nuclear agreement is in fact reached. These talks were confirmed by an anonymous American official. Although a deal struck between Iran and the P5+1 would be monumental, it would not be legally binding and could be edited or thrown out by a future U.S. President or Congress. A Security Council resolution however would be completely legally binding, and would make it significantly harder for a deal to fall apart. These talks are in response to the Republican invitation of Benjamin Netanyahu to address Congress in early March, and the condescending letter written by 47 Republican U.S. Senators to the leadership of Iran, which has garnered significant international criticism. Officials close to the Security Council talks said that a UN resolution would help protect any nuclear deal from potential sabotages from Republicans in the U.S. Congress. If these international sanctions are lifted on Iran's oil export limit, Iran could be producing an additional 800,000 barrels of oil per day within one year.

Kerry and Zarif held five hours of negotiations on Monday, March 16 in Lausanne, Switzerland. Following the meeting, Zarif and the Iranian delegation went to Brussels to meet with European Foreign Ministers, and an anonymous American source unsurprisingly stated that it was not clear whether a deal would be reached by the upcoming deadline. During the talks Zarif addressed the letter written during the previous week by 47 Republican US Senators to Iran's leadership, calling it “ill-timed and ill-advised.”(Reuters, March 16, 2015)

Coming into the final countdown before the deal deadline at the end of March 2015, there were still quite a few issues and differences between the Iranians and the P5+1. Obstacles still troubling negotiators in the weeks leading up to the deadline included: when U.N. sanctions would be lifted, how inspections would be conducted, and how many centrifuges Iran would be allowed to keep operational. Multiple new issues also surfaced during the final weeks of the negotiations. Iranian officials went back on their earlier words that the Fordo facility would be converted into one solely for scientific research, and demanded that it remain operational with centrifuges capable of producing uranium. Iran insisted that they be able to retain the Arak heavy water reactor during the final weeks of negotiations as well, which could provide them an alternate route to a nuclear weapon.

On the heels of the embarassing letter written by 47 Republican U.S. Senators, U.S. and European lawmakers began circulating a letter on March 17, asserting that a “bad deal” with Iran would surely result in more sanctions placed on the Islamic Republic. The letter was first presented to the House Armed Services and Foreign Affairs committees, after being signed by Parliamentarians from France, Britain, and Germany. The letter stresses that “A nuclear Iran is an imminent threat not only to the U.S. but also to Europe, the Middle East and to the world at large. Bearing in mind Iran’s history, we remain skeptical of the Iranian regime’s sincerity and commitment to reach an agreement. We believe Iran must realize that any failure to negotiate an acceptable deal, one that prevents a nuclear armed Iran, will result without fail in tougher sanctions than ever.” To read the full text of the letter, click here.

Senators Bob Corker and Robert Menendez drafted a bill coming into the final phase of the negotiations that would give congress the overall authority to accept or reject any nuclear deal with Iran. As the bill circulated in mid-March, senior Obama Administration officials including President Obama himself took to the Senate offices to lobby against the bill, advising Democrat and Republican Senators alike not to sign the bill, and telling Democrats to notify the White House if they are planning to sign. The President wanted to cut off any Democratic support for the bill before it picked up steam in order to prevent a veto-proof majority from forming in support of the bill. The administration officials attempted to persuade Senators to let the negotiations finish and not to act too soon and destroy what the negotiators had worked so hard for. In addition to these in person meetings, White House Chief of Staff Dennis McDonough sternly warned lawmakers in a letter not to interfere with ongoing negotiations.

A letter from a bipartisan group of 360 U.S. lawmakers was presented to President Obama on March 19, 2015, advising him against bypassing Congress in the event of an Iran deal, and stipulating the need for Congressional approval of any agreement. Speaking about the letter, Representative Eliot Engel from New York stated at a House Foreign Affairs Committee meeting that “There really cannot be any marginalization of Congress. Congress really needs to play a very active and vital role in this whole process, and any attempts to sidestep Congress will be resisted.” The authors and signatories of the letter asserted that “Should an agreement with Iran be reached, permanent sanctions relief from Congressionally-mandated sanctions would require new legislation.” A senior Obama administration official stated that "We’re open to talking to Congress about what they might do, how they might be heard on the Iran deal and how they might play an oversight role." .(Wall Street Journal, March 29, 2015)

Former lawmakers Saxby Chambliss, Evan Bayh, and Norm Coleman created a new 501(c)(4) called the American Security Initiative in March 2015 in an attempt to thwart a bad deal with Iran. The group produced a video urging citizens to call their representatives in Washington and advise them not to allow an Iran deal to go through without Congressional approval. Critics called the ad "war-mongering" and every major news network besides Fox News refused to air the video.(PressTV, March 19, 2015)

President Obama used the pretense of a video wishing Iranian citizens a happy Nowruz (Iranian New Year) to make his case to Iranian youth that their leaders should accept the nuclear deal on the table with the P5+1. After mentioning the Nowruz celebration held at the White House, Obama wasted no time attempting to convince young Iranians that it is in their best interests for their government to sign the nuclear accord. Obama juxtaposed Iran's current path of isolation and hardship with the path of cultural exchanges, travel, economic opportunity, and inclusion that they could have if their government committed to abandon pursuit of nuclear weapons. The video message from the President was disseminated via YouTube with a Persian title and subtitles. (New York Times, March 20, 2015)

Israeli officials worried about a bad deal with Iran took their message to France on March 23, 2015, where they spoke to French National Security Advisor Jacques Audibert and the French nuclear negotiating team about the potential implications of a deal that leaves Iran on the path to a nuclear weapon. Israeli Intelligence Minister Yuval Steinitz stated during an interview in France that the Israelis "think it’s going to be a bad, insufficient deal." The Israelis then took their message to London, where they met with the British negotiating team before the negotiations restarted on Thursday, March 26. (New York Times, March 23, 2015)

After intercepting communications between Israeli officials containing information that could have only come from access to the confidential nuclear talks, the United States announced in March 2015 that it believed Israeli officials had spied on the negotiations. In order to build a case against the emerging Iran deal, Netanyahu's government allegedly penetrated the negotiations and passed information on to US lawmakers, hoping to drain support from the deal. Israeli officials denied the spying accusations and maintained that they received the confidential information through other means such as close surveilance of Iranian and European leaders outside of the negotiations. This incident further strained the US-Israel relationship, but according to an official close to the negotiations the US should not be surprised, as they helped the Israelis build an advanced system to listen in on high-level Iranian communications.

IAEA Director Yukiya Amano stated at a press conference on March 23, 2015, that the IAEA "are still not in a position to conclude that all nuclear material in Iran is in peaceful purpose." (Yahoo News, March 24, 2015)

House Speaker John Boehner made waves earlier in 2015 when he extended an invitation to Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu to address Congress about Iran without consulting with the White House beforehand. In March 2015 he announced that he was going to be leading a team of lawmakers to Israel at the end of March, to coincide with the nuclear deal deadline. Boehner's aides asserted that the trip was planned prior to Israel's 2015 election, which saw Benjamin Netanyahu win a historic fourth term as Prime Minister.

With the deadline for a nuclear agreement less than one week away, IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano stated in an interview on March 24 that out of a dozen inquiries into the potential military dimensions of the Iranian nuclear program, the Iranian government had officially provided the answers to only one of them.

China's Foreign Minister Wang Yi reached out to Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif via phone call on March 24, urging him to sign a nuclear deal with the P5+1 that would curb Iran's nuclear program. "The Iran nuclear talks have reached the final sprint in the marathon," Wang Yi told Zarif, stating that a nuclear agreement is "the trend of the times and the will of the people." (Reuters, March 24, 2015)

In March 2015, 40 Iranian shipping firms and an Iranian bank were placed back on a list of sanctioned groups by the European Union, after a European court removed them from the lists in January. The groups were originally sanctioned because it was believed that they were associated with the blacklisted Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping Lines (IRISL). In January 2015 however, the General Court of the European Union ruled that these sanctions be lifted due to insufficient evidence that IRISL was supporting any aspect of Iran's nuclear program. The sanctions were put back in place in later March, after a letter was sent to the lawyer representing the shipping firms stating that the companies were being relisted due to being owned or controlled by IRISL and/or for providing economic or material support to IRISL. (The Daily Star, March 24, 2015)

Reports coming out during the final week of negotiations revealed that the United States was willing to be flexible as far as the format for an agreement goes. Working to get a written framework for cooperation done by the end of March and a full agreement done by the end of June, officials involved claimed that they "do not know what form this [deal] will take." The Iranian negotiating team hinted that they would be open to a "loose" deal in the form of a statement or political declaration if a more permanent written solution could not be produced. The United States government expressed skepticism at this, prefering a firm, written agreement that Iran could not misrepresent. As March 30 approached, U.S. and French negotiators confirmed that the deadline for a full comprehensive deal was June 30, and there was no reason to rush into an incomplete deal by the end of March. John Kerry and Mohammad Javad Zarif continued negotiations on Thursday, March 26, in Lausanne, Switzerland.

In a unanimous vote on March 26, 2015, the U.S. Senate approved a non-binding measure that would make it easier to re-impose sanctions on Iran if they were to violate an agreed-to nuclear deal. The amendment was attached to a budget bill and sponsored by Senator Mark Kirk. The amendment establishes a fund to cover the cost of imposing sanctions on Tehran in the event that they violate either the current interim agreement or the potential future more permanent agreement.

The Iranian negotiating team demanded in March 27, 2015, that as a part of any agreement international sanctions should be lifted immediately, instead of gradually as the P5+1 had been pushing for.

On March 29, 2015, Iranian Deputy Foreign Minister Abbas Araqchi told reporters that "The export of stocks of enriched uranium is not in our program, and we do not intend sending them abroad," contradicting earlier reports that Iran would be willing to ship part of it's uranium stockpile to Russia. In November 2014 the Iranian negotiatiors tentatively agreed to ship part of their stockpile of uranium to Russia, where it would be processed and converted into specialized fuel rods that cannot be weaponized. This announcement caused another point of contention between Iran and the P5+1 during the final week of negotiations.

Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu told his cabinet ministers on March 29 that the emerging nuclear deal with Iran "Bears out all of our fears, and even more than that."

Framework For a Deal

In the final days of the negotiations it became clear that the Iranians had the advantage, as the United States negotiators did not want to return home to Congress at the end of March without a framework for a deal. No such internal pressure existed within Iran, and the United States did not have time on their side. The president of the National Iranian American Council, Trita Parsi, stated on the final day of negotiations that "part of the reason the Iranians are playing such hardball right now is they know the U.S. can't go back without anything. But if the Iranians walk away, it's less of a problem for them, because the interim deal is still in place for another three months."(Foreign Policy, March 30, 2015)

The negotiators failed to complete a plan by the self imposed deadline of the end of March, but they announced on April 2 that they had agreed on "key parameters" for resolving the nuclear Iran issue. European Union Foreign Affairs Minister Federica Mogherini confirmed that under the supposed agreement Iran would not have the ability to produce weapons-grade nuclear materials, and Iran would allow wider international access to their nuclear facilities for inspections. International sanctions are to be lifted as a part of the agreement, but a timetable was not revealed. Iranian Foreign Minister Zarif proclaimed that the agreement represents "a major step forward." Twitter was abuzz with news of the negotiations, with John Kerry tweeting "Big day: #EU, P5+1, and #Iran now have parameters to resolve major issues on nuclear program. Back to work soon on a final deal," and Zarif posting hopeful statements like "Found solutions. Ready to start drafting immediately."(USA Today, April 2, 2015) Under the agreement:

  • Iran agreed to reduce it's installed centrifuges by approximately 2/3. Iran will go from having about 19,000 installed today to 6,104 installed under the deal, with only 5,060 of these enriching uranium for 10 years. All centrifuges will be IR-1s, Iran’s first-generation centrifuge.
  • Iran agreed to not enrich uranium over 3.67% for the following 15 years.
  • Iran agreed to reduce it's current stockpile of 10,000kg of low-enriched uranium to 300kg of 3.67% enriched uranium for the following 15 years.
  • Iran agreed to not build any new facilities for the purposes of uranium enrichment for the following 15 years.
  • Iran's breakout time will be extended from the current time of 2-3 months to a full year.
  • To read the full summary text of the agreement released by The White House, click here.
  • To read the AICE Fact Sheet regarding to framework agreement, click here.

Many U.S. states have passed their own sanctions against Iran, and even in the context of a final nuclear agreement these sanctions may stay in place. States such as California, Oregon, Florida, Texas, Colorado, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and New York have their own state policies in place that divest public funds from businesses conducting business with Iran.

The Iranians released their own “fact-sheet” pertaining to the framework agreement, which stood in stark opposition to the one released by the White House. On the Iranian fact sheet, it claimed that the agreement was limited to only five years, and during the agreement period 10,000 centrifuges would continue to operate at the Fordow facility. The Iranian text also specifies that the rest of their non-operational centrifuges would be kept in the facilities themselves instead of a UN monitored storage facility, and that all sanctions are to be immediately lifted once the agreement takes effect. A “reversability” measure was also included in the fact sheet, stating that “In case of the two sides' non-commitment to their undertakings, there will be a possibility for reversing all measures” (Fars News, April 15, 2015)

The day following the announcement of the framework agreement, Benjamin Netanyahu sternly asserted that any permenent Iran deal must include “Unambiguous Iranian recognition of Israel's right to exist.” U.S. President Barack Obama fired back during an interview with NPR the next day, stating that “The notion that we would condition Iran not getting nuclear weapons in a verifiable deal on Iran recognizing Israel is really akin to saying that we won’t sign a deal unless the nature of the Iranian regime completely transforms. And that is, I think, a fundamental misjudgment. We want Iran not to have nuclear weapons precisely because we can’t bank on the nature of the regime changing.” (Politico, April 4, 2015)

Unsatisfied with the assurances present in the framework agreement, Israel's Minister of Intelligence, Yuval Steinitz, published on April 5 a list of specific requirements that in his opinion should be part of any final agreement with Iran. Some of the requirements on this list were ones that the United States had unsuccessfully tried to implement in the basic framework agreed to earlier in the month. Wary of unraveling an already delicate deal, the United States government showed little inclination that they were willing to consider any of these ideas.

In the wake of the announcement of the framework agreement, former Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak urged the United States to give Iran an ultimatum: get rid of your nuclear program, or else. Speaking of ways to resolve the Iranian nuclear issue, Barak explained that “The Pentagon and the forces of America under the backing and probably directive of the [U.S.] president [could] create an extremely effective means to destroy the Iranian nuclear military program over a fraction of one night.” The former Prime Minister said that in his opinion "there is no deal, basically," but went on to state that he is confident that the United States will protect Israel's domestic and international security interests. (CNBC, April 8, 2015)

Speaking in public about the deal for the first time, on April 8, Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei called the framework agreement "“non-binding,” and stated that nothing had been officially finalized. Khamenei claimed that the document outlining the framework agreement, published by the White House the day following the conclusion of negotiations, contained false information. He expressed his skepticism about the deal, confirming that he neither supports nor opposes the framework nuclear accord. Earlier in the day, Iranian President Hassan Rouhani asserted that the Iranian team would not sign any final agreement unless it completely lifts all economic sanctions levied against Iran on the first day of implementation. Rouhani proudly commented that Iran had “not surrendered to a policy of pressure, sanctions, and bullying. This is out victory.” The White House responded to this demand of an immediate lifting of sanctions as soon as the deal takes effect, stating that "“It's very clear and understood that sanctions relief will be phased.” Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Ryabkov explained that “We adhere to our view that the lifting of Iran sanctions stipulated by the UN Security Council resolution should run parallel to signing of the [nuclear] agreement. But it does not mean that all sanctions will be removed altogether. What sanction are to be removed or suspended and in what sequence continues to be a matter of debate." (Haaretz, April 8, 2015) (The Iran Project, April 10, 2015)

According to a statement issued by the Iranian Defense Ministry on April 9, “visiting military centers are among the red lines and no visit to these centers will be allowed.” Iranian Defense Minister, Brigadier General Hossein Deghan, confirmed the validity of these statements later in the day. Deghan stated during a press conference that reports that the deal would allow IAEA access to Iran's nuclear sites for inspections were not based on factual information (Times of Israel, April 9, 2015). General Hossein Salami, a commander in the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps, made the disturbing announcement on April 19, 2015, that Iran “ will respond with hot lead (bullets) to those who speak of it,” referring to allowing foreign inspections of Iran's military sites. He went on to say that “Iran will not become a paradise for spies. We will not roll out the red carpet for the enemy.”(Times of Israel, April 19, 2015)

The spokesperson for the EU Foreign Policy Chief informed the media at a press conference on April 10 that negotiations aimed at finalizing the framework agreement would be begining within the following week.

Israeli political leaders Isaac Herzog and Tzipi Livni called for a deep strategic discussion between US and Israeli lawmakers concerning the nuclear talks between the P5+1 and Iran in an official statement released April 12, 2015. The goal of this proposed discussion would be to give preliminary approval for Israeli use of force against Iran and the Iranian nuclear facilities, should Iran violate the terms of the agreement. The paper provides suggestions on how to "close the loopholes" to come to a comprehensive and airtight final deal, chastises the Israeli government for criticising the deal but not providing any viable alternatives, calls for enhanced oversight of the Iranian facilities by the IAEA, and asserts that the removal of sanctions will be done gradually.

During the week following the announcement of a framework agreement aimed at limiting Iran's nuclear capabilities, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a decree lifting a ban on the delivery of S-300 anti-missile systems to Iran. According to Russian officials the arms embargo was no longer needed due to progress made during the nuclear negotiations. The Russian government cancelled the original delivery of these missile systems in 2010 due to international pressure eminating from sanctions imposed on Iran. In addition to the missiles, Russia and Iran signed a oil-for-goods agreement, by which Russia will sell Iran grain, construction materials, and other supplies in exchange for oil. Russian and Iranian officials had been discussing such a deal for approximately one year prior to this announcement. American officials including Secretary of State John Kerry expressed concerns over the Russian decision (Haaretz, April 13, 2015). The following week at a meeting of the G-7, all member nations heavily criticized the Russian decision. The German Foreign Minister asserted that the deal is in contrast to the spirit of the negotiations, and Italian Foreign Minister Paolo Gentiloni stated that “When at the end of June there is a complete accord, Italy will be one of the countries in there trying to reestablish commercial relations. But first we need the accord, we shouldn’t be getting ahead of ourselves."(Bloomberg, April 14, 2015) Russian Foreign Ministry officials clarified on April 23 that the delivery of the S-300 missile system to Iran was not something that would happen in the immediate future, seeming to cave to international pressure. On June 2, 2015, Russian officials released a statement revealing that the missile system would not be delivered to Iran until after a final deal aimed at limiting the Iranian nuclear program is reached. Russian President Vladimir Putin announced on July 30, 2015, that the missile system would be upgraded and modernized before being delivered to Iran, but no more specifics such as a delivery date were given.

Following the announcement that a framework nuclear agreement had been reached, international actors were skeptical as to whether Iran would stick to it's obligations under the deal. US Defense Secretary Ashton Carter announced on April 13, 2015, that the Pentagon has a bunker-busting bomb capable of destroying Iran's secretive underground nuclear facilities in order to ensure that Iran does not cheat the agreement and begin to develop a nuclear weapon. The weapon, called the Massive Ordinance Penetrator, is being “continually improved and upgraded” and provides the United States with the capability to “shut down, set back, and destroy” Iran's nuclear program. (The Hill, April 10, 2015)

Late on April 14, 2015, President Obama caved in to Congressional pressure and the White House announced that the President would sign a compromise bill that would allow Congress to review the hypothetical nuclear accord with Iran, if one were to be agreed to by the June 30 deadline. Essentially the bill allows Congress to vote on whether they approve of the text of the deal, which is to be sent to Congress along with all necessary classified information as soon as a deal is reached. The agreement also halts any lifting of sanctions after the agreement pending a 30 day Congressional review period, as opposed to the original proposed 60 day review period. White House spokesperson Josh Earnest stated during a press conference that the President wasn't very satisfied with the legislation, but it was at least acceptable. In response to this news, Iranian President Hassan Rouhani stated during a press conference that “we (Iran) are in talks with the major powers and not with the Congress” (The Washington Post, April 15, 2015).

The Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) revealed on April 14, 2015, that China, in addition to Russia, was going to begin constructing nuclear plants in Iran. At a press conference of the AEOI, dubbed “An Analysis of the Lausanne Statement,” their spokesman stated that “we have inked an agreement with the Russians to construct two nuclear power plants for the generation of electricity, while the Chinese will also enter this arena soon.” (Algemeiner, April 14, 2015)

“Constructive” talks were held between Iranian leaders and the IAEA on April 15, with their investigation of the potential military dimensions of the Iranian nuclear program running parallel to the negotiations for an agreement aimed at limiting the program. The IAEA officials held “technical talks” with the Iranian leadership, in which they addressed issues relating to the Iranian nuclear program that Tehran had been avoiding since August. Successive to the meeting, IAEA officials stated that they expected progress within the month on issues including Iranian experimentation on explosives that could be used to develop an atomic bomb (Reuters, April 16, 2015).

Iranians celebrated Rouz-e Artesh, their annual “Army Day,” on April 18, complete with parades and displays of Iranian military vehicles and equipment. During these celebrations, the usual cries of “Death to Israel” and “Death to America” were heard, accompanied by banners hanging from military vehicles and local stores advertising the same message.

In contrast to Iranian assertions, member of the U.S. negotiating team and nuclear physicist Ernest Moniz stated that “we expect to have anywhere, anytime access” to the Iranian nuclear facilities under the framework for a nuclear deal. Moniz said that the inspections would be part of a well-defined process and would not be erratic or frivolous (Bloomberg, April 21, 2015).

Reaching an Agreement

Iranian and P5+1 officials reconvened on April 22, 2015, to begin the difficult task of trying to pull together a final deal by June 30 that will satisfy all parties involved. This round of negotiations included EU diplomat Helga Schmid, Iran's deputy Foreign Minister Abbas Araghchi, and technical experts from the P5+1 and Iran. The main issues still to be worked out are the pace and timing of sanctions relief, as well as finalizing the number of allowable centrifuges.

The New York Times reported on April 21 that the United States had constructed a secret replica of Iran's nuclear facilities deep in the heart of the woods of Tennessee. The Oak Ridge Nuclear Reservation in Tennessee is part of an extensive program aimed at replicating in order to better understand Iranian nuclear capabilities. Ernest Moniz, a nuclear physicist who oversees these facilities and was a key negotiator in the talks with Iran, stated that the negotiating diplomats would have been “stumbling in the dark if we did not have this capability nurtured over many dacades”(New York Times, April 21, 2015). These facilities helped the negotiating teams decide whether the stipulations of an agreement would work, based on tests in similar environments to Iranian facilities.

Worried that Prime Minister Netanyahu would publicly air his criticisms of the administration's Iran policy and the nuclear framework, President Obama stated that he had no intention of inviting Netanyahu for a face-to-face meeting before the deal is finalized. During a meeting at the White House with leaders from prominent organizations such as the American Jewish Committee, the Anti-Defamation League, AIPAC, and the Jewish Federations of North America, Obama said he would be talking with Netanyahu on the phone regularly in the meantime but would not be scheduling a meeting with the Israeli Prime Minister until after June 30.

With slightly more than two months to formulate a deal by the self-imposed “final” deadline of June 30, John Kerry and Mohammad Javad Zarif met in the New York residence of the Iranian ambassador to the United Nations on April 28. The was the first time that the two had met since the framework deal was announced on April 2, and this meeting occured simultaneously with the U.N. conference on nuclear non-proliferation. While negotiations were underway in New York, in Washington the Senate began a serious debate over empowering Congress to review and accept or reject the potential nuclear deal.

The U.S. Senate rejected a measure aimed at toughening the Corker-Menendez Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act by classifying any Iran deal as an international treaty on April 29, 2015. By classifying a nuclear agreement with Iran as an international treaty, the amendment to the Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act would require the agreement to be ratified by 2/3 of the 100 members of the Senate. The vote failed with 39 Republican Senators voting in favor, and 57 other Senators voting against it.

The Senate subsequently rejected another amendment that would have linked sanctions relief to a requirement that Obama certify that Tehran is not supporting acts of terrorism against Americans. A handful of Republicans joined Senate Democrats to reject the proposal by a 54-45 vote (Reuters, April 29, 2015).

Senator Marco Rubio pushed for amending the Corker-Menendez bill to require that Iran recognize Israel's right to exist as a Jewish state as a part of any final nuclear accord. Considering the Iranian governmen't record on Israel, Rubio's colleagues argued that such a requirement would make it impossible to negotiate a deal with Iran and the idea was dropped.

Although the White House agreed not to veto the Corker-Menendez bill on April 14, the president warned he would veto the bill if it had any significant changes made.

Is Iran Cheating?

“The UK government informed the Panel [that monitors Iran's compliance with the UN sanctions regime] on 20 April 2015 that it ‘is aware of an active Iranian nuclear procurement network which has been associated with Iran's Centrifuge Technology Company (TESA) and Kalay Electric Company (KEC).’” Both companies are under sanctions because of their suspected links to banned Iranian nuclear activities.

The existence of this network reinforces fears that Iran cannot be trusted to comply with the proposed nuclear deal. If true, the report also contradicts claims by the Obama administration that Tehran has complied with the terms of the November 2013 agreement between Iran and the six powers requiring reductions in its nuclear activities, including enrichment (Reuters, April 30, 2015).

The United States Senate passed the Corker-Menendez Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act with an overwhelming majority (98-1) on May 7, 2015. This approval brought U.S. lawmakers one step closer to being able to approve or reject any nuclear deal forged between Iran and the P5+1. To view the final text of the Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act, please click here.

Contrary to the claims of the Iranian government, IAEA head Yukiya Amano stated on May 12, 2015, that the framework being considered by the P5+1 and Iran provides for IAEA access to Iranian nuclear sites for inspections.

Adding to the general skepticism of whether Iran can be trusted to fulfill the obligations of a nuclear agreement, Czech officials reported in May 2015 that earlier in the year they had blocked a shipment of nuclear materials bound for Iran. The Iranian government attempted to make the purchase of U.S. made Howden CKD Compressors from a third party in the Czech Republic, but Czech authorities were alerted to the deal and prevented it from happening. Authorities were tipped off when the transport company provided false documentation accompanying the shipment in attempts to hide it's origin and destination. The estimated value of the thwarted transaction was $61 million (Reuters, May 13, 2015).

Iranian Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei referred to the P5+1 requests for interviews with Iranian nuclear scientists as “unreasonable demands,” on May 19, stating that Iran, “will never yield to pressure,” and “will not give access to it's nuclear scientists”(Reuters, May 19, 2015). In a broadcast on Iranian state television Khamenei said that allowing interviews with Iranian nuclear scientists would be a violation of the scientists individual privacy, referring to the interviews as interrogations. The P5+1 and the IAEA have continually asserted that under any nuclear deal they must be provided access to Iranian nuclear scientists.

Russian officials voiced their opposition to the automatic reimposition of international sanctions if Iran is caught cheating in regards to elements of the proposed nuclear deal. Russias Ambassador to the UN, Vitaly Churkin, bluntly stated that “there can be no automaticity, none whatsoever”(Bloomberg, May 13, 2015).

In response to Israel's skepticism and disapproval of the framework nuclear deal reached between the P5+1 and Iran, the United States and Israel entered unnoficial negotiations in mid-May 2015 aimed at providing the Israeli military with additional U.S. military equipment. U.S. officials announced on May 20 that they had signed a deal to sell Israel $1.8 billion in precision guided munitions, large and small bombs, and amunition. As a part of the deal Israel will also receive 3,000 Hellfire missiles that were supposed to be delivered in 2014, but were postponed due to Operation Protective Edge. Saudi Arabia will also receive 10 Seahawk helicopters from the United States as a part of this reassurance deal surrounding the framework agreement with Iran.

North Korean officials including nuclear experts and defense officials made their third visit to Iran in May 2015, amid reports that the two countries were forging ballistic and nuclear ties. The dissident group NCRI alleged that the North Korean officials were allowed access to Iranian nuclear sites and held meetings with Iranian nuclear officials and scientists, some of whom the IAEA had been denied access to in the past.

An IAEA report released in May 2015 unsurprisingly claimed that certain key questions still had not been answered by the Iranian regime, leaving a large part of the agreement essentially stalled. The IAEA still had not recieved adequate information to assess whether or not Iranian scientists had worked on nuclear arms; information that it was supposed to have been provided with over 9 months prior. The IAEA report for May 2015 detailed how the organization remained, “concerned about the possible existence in Iran of undisclosed nuclear-related activities involving military-related organizations, including activities related to the development of a nuclear payload for missiles” (AP, May 29, 2015).

Throwing a wrench in the wheel of negotiations, on May 29, 2015, it was revealed via the IAEA's report for May 2015 that the Iranian stockpile of nuclear fuel had experienced a 20% increase during the previous 18 months. Although the IAEA inspectors noted the increase in nuclear material, they also stated in the report that there was no evidence that Iran was racing towards a bomb, and that Iranian nuclear facilities that may give them the capability to develop a bomb are non-operational. The report also clarified that certain aspects of the Iranian nuclear program have been frozen or rolled back. U.S. State Department spokeswoman Marie Harf held a press conference on July 2, in which she clarified the findings of the report. When asked if the increase in the Iranian nuclear stockpile would complicate negotiations, Harf quickly responded that it would have no such effect, and said that officials at the State Department were in fact “perplexed” by the findings of the report. She explained that officials in Washington were not worried about the number, because the Iranians just had to be below a certain number when the deal is officially put in place, and until then it was fine for their stockpile numbers to fluctuate. To read the full IAEA report released on May 29, 2015, click here.

A “snapback” of UN sanctions was agreed to by the P5+1 on May 31, 2015, answering the question of what would occur if Iran were to be caught cheating a final deal and clearing a major obstacle to reaching a nuclear accord. The nations agreed that if Iran were to be caught engaging in any activities that could be considered “cheating,” while the deal is in place, it would mean the reimposition of lifted UN sanctions against the country. If Iran were to be caught cheating, under the agreement the situation would be evaluated by a panel including representatives from the P5+1 and Iran. If in any case Iran is found incompliant with the deal by the IAEA, the P5+1 agreed that UN sanctions would be automatically reimposed (Reuters, May 31, 2015).

During the negotiations Iran continued to work on technology that could be applied to nuclear weaponry, according to a secret report produced by the Pentagon in January 2015 but not released until June. The Pentagon report reached the conclusion that, “covert [Iranian nuclear] activities appear to be continuing unabated, particularly in Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Bahrain, and Yemen” (Bloomberg, June 3, 2015).

Confirming that Iran had little intention of honoring a nuclear agreement from the begining, the Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS) issued a report in June 2015 showing that Iran had produced four tons of enriched uranium since the interim deal came into effect in January 2014. Under the interim deal this uranium was to be converted into an oxidized form that is not easily weaponizable, and according to the ISIS report only 5% of this newly produced uranium had been converted into uranium oxide. The report revealed that between November 2014 and June 2015 Iran had not bothered to convert any uranium into uranium oxide, thwarting their responsibilities per the interim agreement.

The UN Committee on Iran Sanctions questioned whether countries were simply ignoring Iranian violations of sanctions for the sake of preserving the possibility of a final deal in June 2015. A report issued by the committee presented a whitewashing of Iranian sanctions violations, including violations of travel restrictions imposed on Iranian officials, banking activity outside Iran related to nuclear procurement, and arms purchases. Even though Iran violated the stipulations of international sanctions in public multiple times since the Committee on Iran Sanctions most recent report, no countries reported any of these violations of sanctions during that same period. According to the report, “The current situation with reporting could reflect a general reduction of procurement activities by the Iranian side or a political decision by some member states to refrain from reporting to avoid a possible negative impact on ongoing negotiations” (The Tower, June 9, 2015). To read the full report, click here.

The United States Government Accountability Office (GAO) published a report in June 2015 that demonstrated how the United States State Department had been severely falling behind when it came to reporting Iranian violations of U.S. and internationally imposed sanctions. The report detailed that the State Department was at times more than three years late in reporting sanctions violations, with an example given of sanctions violations that occured in 2011 not being reported to Congress until December 2014. The Government Accountability Office concluded in their report that, “[the] State [Department] is falling further and further behind in providing the reports and is now juggling a backlog of draft reports at different stages of that process.” To read the full report, click here.

In mid-June 2015, Iran's parliament approved draft legislation that would bar international inspectors from it's military sites, effectively solidifying Khamenei's statements that he would not allow inspections. The bill also asserts the Iranian idea that all sanctions on Iran should be lifted on the day that a deal is signed. International actors expressed concern that a final nuclear deal would not be able to be reached if Iran were to not allow inspections of their nuclear facilities.

According to the U.S. State Department's 2014 Report on Global Terrorism, Iran's support for terrorism through 2014 was “undiminished”. The report cited Iran's continued support of the Hezbollah terror organization, and Assad's regime forces, as disturbing examples of Iran's continued support of terrorist activities. The report designated Iran as a state sponsor of terrorism, as in years past (The Wall Street Journal, June 19, 2015).

Coming in to the last week before the “final” deadline to reach a comprehensive nuclear deal, Iranian Supreme Leader Khamenei appeared on Iranian state television and clarified his demands and “red lines” when dealing with the P5+1 negotiators. These demands included, as before, that all sanctions against Iran be lifted as soon as a nuclear accord is signed, and that international inspectors receive no inspection access to Iranian nuclear facilities. During the speech Khamenei also stated that “freezing Iran’s [nuclear] research and development for a long time, like 10 or 12 years, is not acceptable” (Foreign Policy, June 23, 2015).

Skepticism Surrounding a Final Deal

Five members of President Obama's trusted inner circle of Iran advisers wrote an open letter to the President, which was released to the public on June 25, 2015. In the letter they cautioned that the likely deal would possibly fall short of what the Obama Administration may consider a “good agreement”. The officials made themselves clear, stating that in their opinions, “the agreement will not prevent Iran from having a nuclear weapons capability. It will not require the dismantling of Iran’s nuclear enrichment infrastructure... The agreement does not purport to be a comprehensive strategy towards Iran. It does not address Iran’s support for terrorist organizations (like Hezbollah and Hamas), its interventions in Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Yemen (its “regional hegemony”), its ballistic missile arsenal, or its oppression of its own people” (The Washington Institute, June 25, 2015). In addition to criticizing the emerging deal, the letter laid out five minimum requirements that Iran must meet and/or agree to before a deal is to be signed. These requirements include that strict limits be placed on Iranian centrifuge research & development, IAEA inspectors be granted frequent and effective access to Iranian nuclear facilities,sanctions relief be based on Iran's cooperation with it's obligations, and an effective mechanism for enforcing consequences of sanctions violations be established. To read the full letter, please click here.

With no great breakthrough in the final hours, the nuclear negotiations between the P5+1 and Iran were once again extended, this time only for one week. The negotiators announced the last-minute extension late on the deadline of June 30th, and President Obama stated that the United States was willing to “walk away” from the negotiating table if a deal could not be reached within the extended time frame. Official representatives of the negotiating teams announced that they would know with certainy within days whether a deal could possibly be reached.

The Islamic Republic of Iran received a 13-ton hoard of gold, worth close to $500 million, that was being held up by sanctions against the country on July 2, 2015. The gold had been purchased prior to the imposition of international sanctions against Iran, and had been stored in South Africa since 2013. The return of the gold reportedly had little to do with the nuclear negotiations, and was worked out in a sideline deal.

On July 5 John Kerry stated during a press conference that, “at this point negotiations could go either way. If hard choices get made in the next couple of days and made quickly, we could get an agreement this week. But if they are not made, we will not.” According to official sources, sanctions relating to the Iranian ballistic missile program were one of the main issues holding up the negotiations during the final week. (CNN, July 5, 2015). Iranian negotiators pushed for the complete lifting of the UN Arms Embargo against Iran during the final days of this round of negotiations.

When a deal was not reached within the one week extension, the parties once again extended the JPOA and negotiations, this time for only three days. With the new deadline of June 10th in place, U.S. officials clarified that they were more worried about the content and quality of the deal rather than the timeline. The extension was met with opposition in Washington and Tehran, with some U.S. government officials advising that Washington abandon diplomacy, repeating the sentiment that no deal is better than a bad deal. This deadline was also not met, with John Kerry stating that the negotiators needed at least the weekend to continue discussions. Because the July 10th deadline was not met, under the Corker-Menendez Iran Agreement Review Act lawmakers in the United States now had 60 days to review and lobby for or against any deal that is reached, instead of 30.

The Final Deal

Negotiators from the P5+1 and Iran announced on July 14, 2015, after 20 months of negotiations, that a comprehensive agreement aimed at limiting Iran's nuclear capabilities had been reached, known as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA). The agreement required Iran to reduce their stockpile of low enriched uranium by 98%, presumably by shipping the excess to Russia, and also required the Iranians to shut down 2/3 of their centrifuges spinning at the Natanz facility. The negotiators from the P5+1 concluded that these measures combined would extend Iran's potential breakout time from a few months to over a full year. American officials clarified that although this marked a historic day, the deal would have to be revisited in a decade to continue to prevent Iran from weaponizing it's nuclear materials. Chief negotiator John Kerry stated during a press conference following the conclusion of negotiations that, “Iran will not produce or acquire highly enriched uranium or plutonium for at least 15 years,” under the agreement. (NY Times, July 14, 2015) Missile restrictions against Iran will remain in place for 8 years under the deal, and the UN Arms Embargo ban on the Iranian purchase and sale of conventional weapons will remain in place for 5 years. Both of these restrictions have been in place since 2006. The Iranians also agreed to a ban on designing warheads and conducting tests on detonators and triggers that could be weaponized. The Iranians signed a seperate “road map” agreement with the IAEA regarding the potential military dimensions of their nuclear program, which provides for meetings between nuclear experts and Iranian nuclear scientists, and further technical discussions regarding the program. If this “road map” agreement is followed, according to IAEA experts all questions left regarding Iran's nuclear program will be answered by the end of 2015.

Under the agreement Iran has to provide international inspectors access to suspicious sites within 24 days of their request. If Iran refuses these inspectors access within the 24 day period, international sanctions against Iran can be “snapped back” in place. This “snap-back” of sanctions would not be able to be vetod by members of the Security Council. IAEA experts reassured the international community in the days following the deal that 24 days is not enough time for Iran to whitewash unauthorized nuclear activities. A true “anywhere, anytime” inspections regime would only be possible if Iran were to be militarily conquered by another country, diplomats close to the negotiations stated.

In return for limiting their nuclear program for at least a decade, the Iranians over the course of the following months will receive relief from both international sanctions against their economy and oil industry, worrying critics of the deal. The deal freed up an estimated $100-$150 billion in frozen Iranian assets around the world, which many global officials are concerned they will use to fund their terror proxies. The deal opened up Iran to the international business community and global financial networks, which will help generate steady revenue for the Islamic Republic. To read the full text of the final nuclear accord agreed to by the P5+1 and Iran, please click here.

In response to the deal, Iranian President Hassan Rouhani stated that the Iranian people's “prayers have come true.” (NY Times, July 14, 2015) According to U.S. President Barack Obama, “Every pathway to a nuclear weapon is cut off, and the inspection and transparency regime necessary to verify that objective will be put in place. Because of this deal, Iran will not produce the highly enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium that form the raw materials necessary for a nuclear bomb. Today's announcement marks one more chapter in our pursuit of a safer, more helpful and more hopeful world.” (Roll Call, July 14, 2015) Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu referred to the deal as a, “bad mistake of historic proportions,” and stated that, “Iran is going to receive a sure path to nuclear weapons.” (Washington Post, July 14, 2015) During the days following the announcement of the deal, Netanyahu appeared on multiple American television programs to voice his opinions. Netanyahu told Lester Holt of NBC News that, “We think this is not only a threat to [Israel]... We think this is a threat to [the United States] as well. Iran has killed more Americans than anyone other than al Qaeda. They're going to get hundreds of billions of dollars to fuel their terror and military machine.”(NBC News, July 16, 2015) Leaders of opposition parties in the Knesset, including Isaac Herzog, Yair Lapid, and Ehud Barak, joined Netanyahu in voicing their opposition to the nuclear deal.

U.S. Ambassador to the UN, Samantha Power, circulated a draft legally binding resolution to the Security Council in the days following the announcement of the deal. This resolution would give the deal the council's seal of approval, making it significantly harder for Congressional opponents in the United States to push back against the agreement. The United Nations Security Council voted on and approved this resolution on July 20, 2015. All fifteen members of the Security Council co-signed the resolution. Under the agreed-upon resolution, when Iran completes a specific series of steps to curb their nuclear program and the IAEA concludes that all nuclear activities in Iran are for peaceful purposes, seven Security Council resolutions imposing sanctions on Iran are to be lifted. The Security Council resolution also includes a snap-back provision, to quickly re-impose sanctions on Iran if it is discovered that they are not abiding by the rules of the deal. The deal was also voted on and approved by the European Union on the same day. Two weeks later, the nuclear accord was voted on and approved by the Gulf Cooperation Council, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Members of the Gulf Cooperation Council released a statement following the vote, explaining that the deal “fully addresses the regional and international concerns about Iran’s nuclear program,” and “once fully implemented, the JCPOA contributes to the region’s long-term security, including by preventing Iran from developing or acquiring a military nuclear capability.” (AL Monitor, August 9, 2015)

Selling the Deal

President Obama presented the nuclear accord to Congress to allow them to begin their 60-day review period on July 19, 2015, and some members of Congress were upset by the fact that the Obama administration presented the agreement to the Security Council before they had the chance to review it. In response to the displeasure expressed by some members of Congress, John Kerry stated on the ABC television show “This Week,” that, “It’s presumptuous of some people to suspect that France, Russia, China, Germany, Britain ought to do what the Congress tells them to do. They have a right to have a vote.” (New York Times, July 20, 2015)

During the week following the announcement of the deal, German and Iranian officials announced that they would be engaging in their first joint economic conference since 2002. Iranian Oil Minister Bijan Zanganeh stated that the conference would be aimed at laying the groundwork for business in both countries to work together, as the sanctions are eventually lifted.

Several experts with past experience monitoring nuclear facilities came forward with questions and concerns following the conclusion of negotiations. A former high-ranking official at the IAEA who spoke under the condition of anonymity, stated that the 24 day period to grant access to inspectors following the discovery of a potential breach of the deal may be too long and the Iranians may be able to effectively hide traces of their nuclear ambitions and avoid detection. Former weapons inspector in Iraq and current president of the Institute for Science and International Security, David Albright, stated that in his opinion this three week period may be ample time for the Iranians to dispose of any evidence of prohibited nuclear practices. Albright went on to say that the Iranian leaders are “practiced at cheating,” and the United States “can't count on them to make a mistake.” Ribert Einhorn, who served as part of the American delegation to the Iran talks from 2009-2013, explained that, “‘No notice’ inspections were clearly not achievable, but a limit shorter than 24 days would have been desirable. While evidence of some illicit activity - construction of a covert enrichment facility or work with nuclear materials - would be difficult or impossible to hide or remove in 24 days, incriminating evidence of lesser activities probably could be removed.” (New York Times, July 23, 2015)

The Obama administration began the uphill battle of selling the Iran nuclear deal to U.S. lawmakers during the last week of July. House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi and Secretary of State and Chief Negotiator John Kerry met with their colleagues in late July, hoping to explain the benefits of approving this particular agreement with Iran. Many Congressmen and Senators expressed disappointment with the deal, and wondered whether the IAEA would be able to adequately monitor Iranian nuclear activity. A poll by CNN released on July 27, 2015, demonstrated the American public's opinion: 52% of people surveyed said that they think Congress should reject the deal, while 44% said that Congress should approve the deal, and 5% did not offer their opinions. To read the results of the poll, click here.

General Martin E. Dempsey, the United States top military official, testified before Congress about the Iran deal on July 29, 2015. He lamented that the deal would not prevent Iran from funding it's worldwide network of terror proxies, but confidently stated that the deal significantly decreased the likelyhood of a war erupting between the U.S. and Iran. According to General Dempsey the Iranian government is involved in at least five other “malign activities” that the nuclear agreement does not address, including the pursuit of balistic missile and other weapons technology, weapons trafficing, funding of proxies, and the use of naval mines.

Influential Democratic Representative from New York Steve Israel revealed on a morning radio talk show on August 2, 2015, that he was “extremely skeptical” about the Iran deal, even after attending three classified briefings and reading the whole document. After speaking with experts, attending congressional panels, and reading the document thoroughly, Representative Israel still stated that, “Nothing that I have seen, read, or heard has alleviated any of the skepticism that I had initially.”(Buzzfeed News, August 4, 2015)

Senate Democrats Tim Kaine, Barbara Boxer, and Bill Nelson, were the first to announce that they would be voting in favor of the deal, on August 4. On the same day however, Democrats Steve Israel, Nina Lowey, and Ted Deutch came out against the agreement and clarified that they would be voting against it. The most influential Jewish individual in Congress, Senator Chuck Schumer, announced with a lengthy statement on August 6, 2015, that he would be voting against approving the nuclear agreement. Schumer cited his chief concern as the fact that the deal may just push a nuclear Iran down the road, and after the deal expires Iran might develop nuclear capabilities. While evaluating the agreement Senator Schumer spent hours meeting with President Obama and his Congressional colleagues, and even met with the P5+1 negotiating team, where he asked and recieved answers to 14 pages worth of questions. The influential Senator criticized the inspections regime, calling it “weak,” and stated that reimposing sanctions on Iran, should they cheat the deal, would be a Herculean task. Schumer argued during the following week that even if the deal is rejected by the United States and all other countries lift their sanctions on Iran per the deal, Iran would still feel, “meaningful pressure,” from U.S. sanctions. Two more Democrats, Senators Brian Schatz and Amy Klobuchar, announced on August 10 that they would be voting in support of the deal.

Officials from Britain, Russia, and China met with a group of 30 Senate Democrats in an attempt to sell the deal during the first week of August 2015. The Democrats were told by British officials that the chances of negotiating a better deal were “far-fetched,” and that the international sanctions against Iran would more than likely fall apart even if the U.S. rejects the deal. A spokesperson from the British Embassy stated under the condition of anonymity that, “If Congress rejects this good deal, and the U.S. is forced to walk away, Iran will be left with an unconstrained nuclear program with far weaker monitoring arrangements, the current international consensus on sanctions would unravel, and international unity and pressure on Iran would be seriously undermined.”(Foreign Policy, August 6, 2015)

Criticism of the deal from inside Iran grew during the second week of August, with conservative Iranian media denouncing the accord. Conservative publication 9 Dey ran editorials that claimed the deal overstepped the limits placed on concessions by supreme leader Khamanei. Liberals in Iran have pointed out that the lifting of sanctions will have economic benefit for the Islamic republic, and have argued for the benefits of the agreement.

Iranian Supreme Leader Khamenei delivered a speech on June 23, 2015, in which he claimed that talks between Iran and the U.S. began in 2011 at the request of the United States, and were based originally on U.S. recognition of nuclear Iran. According to Khamenei, the Sultan of Oman came to him in 2011 with a message from the Obama administration that insinuated the U.S. wanted to solve the nuclear issue and lift sanctions within six months, while recognizing Iran as a nuclear power. Khamenei went on to say that John Kerry wrote a letter to Iranian government officials at the start of these secret negotiations in 2011, allegedly officially recognizing Iran's rights regarding nuclear enrichment.

Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu met with 22 Democrats from the U.S. Congress on August 9, 2015, in a 2-hour meeting in which he attempted to sell the Congressmen on the idea that the Iran deal will be detrimental to global security and will provide Iran a path to a nuclear weapon. The Prime Minister stated that he was not going to tell the Congressmen how to vote, but according to those present at the meeting he made his position abundantly clear. This meeting was organized by AIPAC, who are staunch opponents of the deal.

A group of 36 retired Generals and Admirals from the U.S. military wrote an open letter to lawmakers and the American people on August 11, 2015, in which they argued that the final Iran deal that was reached is the, “most effective means currently available to prevent Iran from obtaining nuclear weapons.” The group of former military leaders stated with conviction that, “There is no better option to prevent an Iranian nuclear weapon. Military action would be less effective than the deal, assuming it is fully implemented. If the Iranians cheat, our advanced technology, intelligence and the inspections will reveal it, and U.S. military options remain on the table. And if the deal is rejected by America, the Iranians could have a nuclear weapon within a year. The choice is that stark.” To read the full letter, click here. During the previous week, a team of 29 of the nation's leading scientists delivered a letter to President Obama in which they referred to the deal as, “technically sound, stringent and innovative.” The scientists went on to assert that the deal would certainly, “provide the necessary assurance in the coming decade and more that Iran is not developing nuclear weapons.” (Washington Post, August 11, 2015)

Chief U.S. negotiator Secretary of State John Kerry clarified during a press conference on August 11, 2015, that Iranian violations of the arms embargo against them or the restrictions on their missile program will not force a snap-back of sanctions that were negotiated to be lifted. Kerry stated in no uncertain terms that the arms embargo and missile restrictions were not in any way tied to the snap-back of sanctions. Other specific UN resolutions are designed to deal with these potential violations and have been in place, argued Kerry. Addressing his critics, and critics of the deal as a whole, Kerry went on to explain later in the day that there was not a, “better deal” to be gotten. He railed against opponents of the deal, calling them naive and stating that they have misread and misunderstood the last decade of efforts to limit Iran's nuclear capabilities.

Presidential candidate Hillary Clinton expressed her support for the nuclear agreement at a political rally in New Hampshire on August 10, 2015. The former first lady and frontrunner for the Democratic presidential nomination in 2016 stated that, “"I'm hoping that the agreement is final-approved and I will tell you that if it's not, all bets are off... You play the hand you're dealt. And we played that hand to get them to the table to make unprecedented concessions.” Clinton pledged to continue the work of the negotiators, confidently claiming that as President she would, “do everything necessary to make sure the lid stays on the nuclear weapons program.” (Washington Post, August 11, 2015)

Gary Samore, former nuclear advisor to President Obama and President and founder of the advocacy group United Against Nuclear Iran, resigned from his position on August 11, 2015, when the group decided as a whole that it was going to work to oppose the Iranian nuclear accord. After leaving his post, Samore said that, “I think President Obama’s strategy succeeded. He has created economic leverage and traded it away for Iranian nuclear concessions.” (New York Times, August 11, 2015) The organization immediately replaced Samore, who founded United Against Nuclear Iran in 2008, with former Senator from Connecticut Joseph Lieberman. Samore does not think the deal is a perfect or final solution however, but he acknowledges the fact that the deal has bought the international community a couple of years to figure out how to permanently deal with Iran.

General Clarles Krulak, Former Commandant of the United States Marine Corps and former member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, voiced his opposition to the JCPOA on August 14, 2015 via a statement in conjunction with the Birmingham Alabama Jewish Federation. Referring to the negotiations, Krulak lamented that, “we went into this process with specific goals as a baseline and came out with many of those goals either partially achieved or not achieved at all.” (The Tower, August 14, 2015)

In a full page ad in the New York Times on August 20, 2015, twenty-six senior American Jewish leaders including former head of AIPAC Thomas Dine urged the U.S. Congress to approve the JCPOA with Iran. The ad was taken out to demonstrate that the deal has support from the Jewish community in the U.S., and states that, “while not perfect, this deal is the best available option to halt Iran’s nuclear program.”(Haaretz, August 20, 2015)

Independent Senator from Maine Angus King stated on August 20, 2015, that, “A nuclear-armed Iran would be a serious threat to the United States and to the world, but this agreement, if implemented effectively, would prevent Iran from obtaining the capacity to build a nuclear weapon for at least another fifteen years.”(Haaretz, August 20, 2015)

Harry Reid, Senate Minority leader and top ranking Senate Democrat, endorsed the deal as expected on August 23, 2015. Explaining his support for the deal, Reid posted on his social media accounts, “I believe a nuclear-armed Iran is unacceptable, and the security of Israel is of the utmost importance to me. My support for the safety and security of the Israeli people has been at the core of my views on the Middle East.”(Foreign Policy, August 23, 2015) As of August 23, 2015, twenty-seven Senate Democrats had endorsed the deal.

Jewish Congressman from New York Jerrold Nadler, who represents the largest Jewish constituency in the United States, came out in support of the deal on August 14, 2015. President Barack Obama began pushing for a Democratic filibuster in the Senate in favor of the deal on August 28, 2015.

In an interview on Syrian TV in late August 2015, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad affirmed that in his opinion the nuclear agreement between Iran and P5+1 strengthened and benefited Iran.

President Obama appeared on a live webcast from the White House on August 28, 2015, during which he fielded questions from Jewish organizations and citizens expressing their skepticism about the JCPOA. The question and answer session was meant to clear up concerns from the Jewish community in particular, and was moderated by Stephen Greenberg, the chairman of the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations, and Michael Siegal, the chairman of the Jewish Federations of North America. Obama stated that, “We're all pro-Israel, and we're all family, and Jewish members in Congress that are supporting this deal, I don't need to give you their biographies.” (New York Times, August 28, 2015)

During the weekend of August 28, six Jewish House Democrats as well as eleven Jewish former Congressmen endorsed the deal, the latter with a large ad in the New York Times. The six current members penned a "Dear Colleague" letter to their peers, asking for their support of the deal and referencing the New York Times ad.

In the months following the announcement of the JCPOA, Iranian and Russian officials held a series of meetings aimed at mutual economic and military cooperation. Iran and Russia reached agreements in joint helicopter manufacturing, joint airplane manufacturing, and defensive missile systems training and implementation. The two nations also finalized a deal for Russia to sell an upgraded S-300 missile system to Iran. The S-300 missile system delivery began in December 2015.

Maryland Democratic Senator Barbara Mikulski threw her support behind the JCPOA on September 2, 2015, providing the Obama administration with enough Democrat votes to sustain the President's veto should Republicans vote to not approve the deal. Under the U.S. Constitution it takes 34 votes in the Senate to sustain a Presidential veto, and Mikulski was the 34th Senator to announce her support for the deal. Later that week eight more Democratic Senators spoke out in support of the agreement, further strengthening Obama's position.

2016 Presidential hopefuls Donald Trump and Ted Cruz spoke at a rally against the deal outside of the Capital building on September 9, 2015.

Senate Democrats blocked a vote to reject the JCPOA on September 10, 2015, handing Obama one of the most significant diplomatic victories of his presidency. Following hours of intense debate in the Senate, a vote was called to reject the agreement that fell just short of the 60 votes that would have been required to silence the Democratic filibuster in support of the deal. Leading Republicans have stated that they will attempt to force another vote on the agreement in the coming weeks.

On October 1, 2015, legislation titled the Justice for Victims of Iranian Terrorism Act was approved by the House, sporting a bipartisan majority. The bill, which passed with a 251-73 vote, would bar the Obama administration from releasing millions of dollars to Iran in the form of sanctions relief, following the signing of the JCPOA earlier in the year. The legislation has very little chance of going into effect, considering that President Obama has vowed to veto any legislation that comes to his desk trying to derail the implementation of the nuclear agreement. To read the text of this legislation, please click here.

The initial conditional sanctions waivers for Iran were approved by United States officials on October 18, 2015, although the deal does not go into effect until Iran has fulfilled all of it's obligations. Many officials close to the negotiations clarified that actual sanctions relief was likely at least two months away for Iran. This day was dubbed “adoption day” by both lawmakers and the media, and the day that the deal takes effect has been referred to as “implementation day.” (Reuters, October 19, 2015)

Israel's Atomic Energy Commission, the body that advises the government on nuclear issues, endorsed the Iran deal on October 22, 2015. Israeli nuclear experts heading the commission agreed through months of deliberation after reading the final accord, that the JCPOA would indeed prevent Iran from developing a nuclear weapon. The commission went on to say that any Iranian violation of the agreement would be easily noticable by the observer entities, and that they were extremely satisfied with the changes that are to be made to the Arak heavy-water reactor.

Israeli and U.S. Defense officials forged an agreement during November 2015, including aid packages and military equipment to be delivered to Israel. As a part of this package, the U.S. government approved the sale of V-22 Osprey aerial vehicles to the IDF, which are capable of reaching Iran and damaging their nuclear infrastructure. Israeli authorities requested the Ospreys originally in 2012 when they were considering a strike on the Iranian Fordow enrichment facility, but did not follow through on the purchase.

The Iranians

Various sources reported in the months following the deal that Iran had begun using the money gained from sanctions relief to increase it's financial support for proxy groups Hamas and Hezbollah. The expected large influx of cash from sanctions relief emboldened the Iranian officials, and they commenced funneling thousands of dollars all across the Middle East.

Senior Iranian official and top negotiator Abbas Araghchi vowed on July 22, 2015, that despite the nuclear deal Iran would continue to “buy weapons from wherever possible... and provide weapons to whomever and whenever it considers appropriate.” He insisted that “if you want to have an agreement in which sanctions imposed on us for weapons and missiles will continue, then we will not agree,” even though those restrictions are explicitly laid out in the agreement that the Iranians signed. (Free Beacon, July 22, 2015) Iran's ability to import and export arms and missiles was a major sticking point during the negotiations. Araghchi also claimed that the Iranian negotiators fully acheived their goal of refusing to allow any inspections of nuclear facilities.

Echoing other Iranian officials, Iranian Supreme Leader Khamenei's trusted advisor Ali Akbar Velayati stated during an interview with Al Jazeera on July 31, that “We in Iran will independently determine what military equipment we need in order to defend our land, the regime of the Islamic Republic, the Iranian people, and the interests of our country. Therefore, we will not hesitate to obtain these weapons.” He added however that the regime would not attempt to obtain or manufacture nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons. Velyati went on to insist that, “Regardless of how the P5+1 countries interpret the nuclear agreement, their entry into our military sites is absolutely forbidden.”(MEMRI, July 31, 2015)

IAEA Director-General Yukiya Amano stated during an interview on August 5 that the Iranians were still completely barring the agency from interviewing key Iranian scientists and military officers. Amano expressed concern about whether the investigation into the potential military dimensions of Iran's nuclear program and alleged secret nuclear weapons program could be completed without access to these individuals. Earlier in the day, the Director-General met with members of Congress to discuss the agreement.

Satellite images presented to U.S. intelligence services in early August 2015 showed recent activity at the secretive Parchin nuclear facility in Iran, prompting suspicions that the Iranian regime were already trying to hide nuclear activity. The photos allegedly showed bulldozers and other heavy construction material being moved in and around the Parchin facility, possibly an Iranian effort to clean and sanitize the facility before planned IAEA inspections. When pressed about this suspicious activity during the following week, Iranian Foreign Minister Zarif asserted that the construction materials were simply present at the site because there were crews engaging in road construction in the area. Zarif accused the opponents of the deal of spreading lies in order to drum up public opposition. Although the construction material was provocatively placed, further information released during subsequent weeks revealed that the construction equipment had just been placed there for storage and parking, had been there for a long time, and was not being used. An IAEA report released in August 2015 included claims that the Iranians had allegedly built an extension to the Parchin nuclear complex. The authors of the report said that, “Since (our) previous report (in May), at a particular location at the Parchin site, the agency has continued to observe, through satellite imagery, the presence of vehicles, equipment, and probable construction materials. In addition, a small extension to an existing building.” Iran's envoy to the IAEA responded, stating that, “It’s funny that the IAEA claims there has been a small extension to a building... Iran doesn't need to ask for the IAEA's permission to do construction work on its sites.” (Reuters, August 28, 2015)

The IAEA and Iran announced a side agreement seperate from the JCPOA in late August 2015, pertaining to inspections of the secretive Parchin nuclear complex. Iran will be allowed to use it's own nuclear inspectors to investigate the site and report nuclear development activity to the IAEA, privy to the agreement. The IAEA document states that the watchdog organization will “ensure the technical authenticity of the inspections,” but does not detail how it would do so. IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano released a statement after the deal was revealed, where he asserted that the IAEA is completely satisfied with the deal it struck for inspections of the Parchin nuclear facility.

During the months following the signing of the JCPOA Iranian leaders continued their verbal tirade against the United States and Israel, insisting that signing the deal did not change their policy towards the top two enemy's of the Islamic Republic. On September 2, 2015, Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei explained during a press conference that, “the Americans wish to infiltrate Iran with the [JCPOA] agreement, whose fate in Iran and in the U.S. is still unknown. But we have decisively blocked this path, and we will do anything to keep them from infiltrating Iran economically, politically, and culturally.” Chants of “death to America” and “death to Israel” still filled Iranian streets, and Khamenei vowed to, “strengthen the fists of our Palestinian brothers in Gaza and elsewhere” in order to fight the “Zionist regime.” (JCPA, August 16, 2015)

Iran's supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei announced that he is in favor of Iran's parliament voicing their opinion and voting to approve or reject the JCPOA, during a televised statement on September 3, 2015. “Parliament should not be sidelined on the nuclear deal issue,” said Khamenei, adding that, “it is up to them [the lawmakers in parliament] to decide,” whether to approve or reject the agreement with the P5+1. (Reuters, September 3, 2015) Khamenei's decision to allow the parliament to vote on the deal was supported later in the day by the Iranian Parliament's official speaker in New York, Ali Larijani, adding that he supports the deal.

Ayatollah Ali Khamenei asserted on September 9, 2015, that the nuclear agreement did not open up Iran to further direct talks or diplomatic interactions with the United States pertaining to different issues.

Lassina Zerbo, head of the United Nations Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization, encouraged Iran to sign the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) during mid-September. According to Zerbo, Iran signing the CTBT would satiate opponents of the deal, who claim that after 15 years time the Iranians will be able to produce a weapon. One hundred and ninety six countries have signed the CTBT but it has not yet been ratified by some countries who were originally involved in the negotiations, including Iran, Israel, Egypt, India, Pakistan, North Korea, the United States and China.

Members of the IAEA, including Director-General Yukiya Amano, were granted access to the Parchin facility for the first time in a decade in late September 2015. Amano met with Iranian President Hassan Rouhani during his visit, and the two spoke about implementation of the JCPOA.

Iranian officials vowed during September 2015 that they would follow only the JCPOA and not abide by UNSCR 2231, a Security Council Resolution that encompasses the JCPOA as well as other restrictions on Tehran's activities. Iranian President Hassan Rouhani clarified his cabinet's positioning, stating that he views UNSCR 2231, the Security Council Resolution endorsing the agreement, as seperate from the JCPOA itself. UNSCR 2231 imposes additional restrictions on Iran's ballistic missile program as well as the development of other weapons.

For the first time since the JCPOA was reached and the parties left the negotiating table, John Kerry and Iranian Foreign Minister Javad Zarif met to discuss implementation of the JCPOA on the sidelines of the United Nations General Assembly in late September 2015.

Iran's Supreme National Security Council (SNSC) provided their evaluation of the JCPOA in October 2015, following weeks of pouring over the details of the agreement. The council, led by Iranian President Hassan Rouhani, issued a report stating that, “It is evident that, based on the JCPOA, access to Iranian military sites has become possible... Implementation of this inspection regime could lead to unprecedented information gathering and exposes to danger the security infrastructure, human, scientific, military and security resources of Iran.”(Yahoo, October 4, 2015)

All further negotiations between Iran and the United States were banned by Iranian Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei on October 7, 2015. Khamenei posted on his personal website that, “negotiations with the United States open gates to their economic, cultural, political and security influence. Even during the nuclear negotiations they tried to harm our national interests.” Separately, during a meeting with Iran's Revolutionary Gaurd Commanders, Khamenei stated, “through negotiations Americans seek to influence Iran... but there are naive people in Iran who don't understand this. We are in a critical situation now as the enemies are trying to change the mentality of our officials and our people on the revolution and our national interests.” (Reuters, October 7, 2015)

The Iranian Parliament approved the JCPOA on October 13, 2015, with 161 members voting in favor of the deal, 59 against, and 13 abstaining. More conservative Iranian lawmakers who worried that the JCPOA would open Iran to further Western influence took a backseat to the more mainstream moderate Parliament members. In a final step, after being approved by the Parliament, the deal must be approved by the Iranian Gaurdian Council. Following the restrictions set out in the JCPOA, much of Iran's nuclear infrastructure is to be shut down in the coming months.

Trade sources reported on October 13, 2015, that Iran had been boosting oil exports in the months since the deal was signed, in anticipation of sanctions relief. Allegedly this oil was being sold with labels claiming origins in Iraq, and other falsified paperwork. (Reuters, October 13, 2015)

The United Nations disclosed on October 15, 2015, that Iran had fulfilled it's obligation under the parallel deal struck with the IAEA and met a deadline to give the agency information about the past military dimensions of their nuclear program. Under the separate agreement with the IAEA, Iran had to provide the agency with information needed to complete an assessment of Iran's past nuclear activity by October 15, and they met that deadline. The IAEA issued an official statement, that “in the period to 15 October 2015, activities set out in the 'road-map for the clarification of past and present outstanding issues regarding Iran's nuclear program' were completed.”(Reuters, October 16, 2015)

Iranian Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei publicly expressed his support for and approval of the JCPOA for the first time on October 21, 2015. The support of the Supreme Leader was crucial to the implementation of the agreement. Although he approved of the deal, Khamenei cautiously stated that if all promised sanctions on Iran were not lifted Iran would not hesitate to walk away from the deal. To read the letter Khamenei wrote to Rouhani expressing his tepid support for the agreement, please click here.

Khamenei had a personal interest in the lifting of sanctions against Iran and Iranian companies, it was revealed during the months following the deal. Setad, one of Iran's largest conglomerates, is partly owned by Khamanei and is due to have many sanctions on it lifted after the implementation of the deal. Sanctions against Setad prohibited banks that did business in the United States from doing business with Setad. If the sanctions are completely lifted American banks, companies, and individuals will still not be able to do business with Setad, but outside businesses who work with Setad would be able to do business in the U.S.

Iranian officials were invited by envoys from the United States to participate for the first time ever in discussions over the future of Syria, in October 2015. The United States and Russia, took a gamble inviting Iran into the Syria discussions, as Iran played an increasingly central role in the Syrian conflict over the previous year. Other countries invited to join the Syria discussions in October 2015 included Great Britain, France, Germany, Jordan, and the UAE.

Past Iran President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani admitted in an interview published on October 28, 2015, that his government at one time sought nuclear weapons to be developed for military purposes. Rafsanjani was quoted speaking with a reporter from Iran's Nuclear Hope website, saying that, “As I have said, when we started the [nuclear] work, we were at war, and we wanted to have such an option for the day our enemies wanted to use nuclear weapons. This was [our] state of mind, but things never become serious. The principle of our doctrine was the use of nuclear [energy] for peaceful purposes, even though we never abandoned [the idea] that if we were some day to face a certain threat, and if it became necessary, then we would have the option of going to the other side [to develop nuclear weapons].” Later in the interview, Rafsanjani revealed that during his Presidency officials sought to develop the Arak heavy water reactor facility into a plutonium processing facility, specifically for military purposes. (Jerusalem Post, October 28, 2015)

Iran began implementation of the JCPOA by begining to take their centrifuges offline in November 2015, according to international news sources. In a development that seemed to support these claims, 20 hardline conservative members of Iranian Parliament penned a letter to President Rouhani complaining about the deactivation of centrifuges during the following week. (Reuters, October 28, 2015) Iranian scientists abruptly stopped taking the centrifuges offline a week after the initial announcement that they were being dismantled, due to pressure from conservative Iranian lawmakers who feared they were rushing into implementation.

The Iranian government issued a blockade on U.S. goods instituted by the Ministry of Industry, Mine and Trade, in early November 2015.

It was reported by U.S. Central Command on November 4, 2015, that 14% of U.S. troops killed in Iraq were a direct result of Iranian terrorism.

U.S. officials reported on November 4, 2015, that Iran's Revolutionary Gaurd Corps (IRGC) had hacked the emails and social media accounts of Obama administration officials and other Washington higher-ups. Iranian entities have often engaged in cyber-warfare with the United States, but these incidents became increasingly more common during the previous year.

According to the IAEA board report released on November 18, 2015, the Iranians had begun to made good on their promise to scale down their nuclear program. Since the previous IAEA report, Iranian scientists had cut the number of centrifuges at Iran's Fordow nuclear facility by 3,000, leaving 11,308 of them.

Russian President Vladimir Putin visited Iran for the first time since 2007, in mid-November 2015. While there meeting with Iranian officials, Putin ordered an easing of restrictions on Russian companies working in Iranian nuclear sites, meaning that Russian experts may help Iran redesign the Arak heavy water reactor and modify centrifuges. This announcement came as meetings between Putin and Iranian President Rouhani concerning the Syrian civil war came to a close. Putin signed a decree lifting the ban on the export of uranium enrichment equipment to Iran during the visit, and on November 24, 2015, it was reported than Iran had begun exporting enriched uranium to Russia, following implementation steps laid out in the JCPOA. In accordance with the deal, Iran must get rid of 98% of it's enriched uranium, much of which it agreed to ship to Russia. It was reported on December 21, 2015, that Iran would begin shipment of nine tons of enriched uranium to Russia before the new year. As a part of the exchange deal, Iran is importing 140 tons of lower enriched uranium from Russia, to support peaceful activities. (Fox News, December 21, 2015)

The IAEA board report set to be released in mid-December 2015 confirmed that Iran had indeed pursued nuclear weapons for military purposes prior to 2003, but had halted all research into military applications as of the end of that year. U.S. officials noted the information included within the IAEA report was consistent with a U.S. national intelligence estimate from 2007. The report found no evidence of current activities, stating “the Agency has no credible indications of activities in Iran relevant to the development of a nuclear explosive device after 2009.”(Washington Post, December 2, 2015) To read this IAEA board report, click here.

The United States began facilitation of sending part of Iran's nuclear fuel stockpile to Kazakhstan as part of the JCPOA, in December 2015.

Following the revelation that Iran had pursued military dimensions to their nuclear program prior to 2003 and periodically until 2009, but not since then, the IAEA voted to close their file on the past military application of Iran's nuclear program on December 15, 2015. This announcement marked the end of a decade-long inquiry by the IAEA into the potential military applications of Iran's covert nuclear program and facilities. IAEA officials stated that closing this portion of the investigation would allow them to fully focus on the complete and stringent implementation of the JCPOA.

In violation of a United Nations ban on testing of missiles that could possibly deliver a nuclear warhead, Iran tested a new missile known as the Emad in early October 2015. The Emad is a precision-guided long range missile, and is the first guided weapon in Iran's arsenal capable of striking Israel. It is estimated that the missile has a range of over 1,000 miles and an accuracy range of within 1,600 feet. Israeli Military professional Uzi Rubin stated cautiously that, “The Emad represents a major leap in terms of accuracy. It has an advanced guidance and control system in its nose cone.” (Reuters, October 11, 2015) The United States announced during the following week that officialls would soon be discussing the incident before the United Nations, as a violation of UN sanctions and Security Council resolution 1929. The UNSC was told in a report that the Emad rocket could possibly deliver a nuclear warhead, and that the test was a “serious violation” of UNSC resolutions against Iran. The Iranians tested another rocket, the medium range ballistic missile Ghadr-110, on November 21, 2015. The Ghadr-110 is capable of carrying a nuclear warhead and is a new and improved version of the Iranian Shabab-3 missile. The Security Council reached the conclusion that Iran had violated UNSCR 1929, on December 15, 2015. In response to this revelation, Iranian Defense Minister Hossein Dehghan stressed that the Iranians would not accept any limitations on their missile program. Deghan told reporters on December 16, 2015 that, “Since the nuclear deal we have not stopped our (missile)tests, production and research even for a day, an hour or a second... We tested Emad to show the world that the Islamic Republic will only act based on its national interests and no country or power can impose its will on us.” (Reuters, December 16, 2015)

A Russian ship left Iran on December 28, 2015, carrying with it a massive haul of enriched uranium. Russia assisted the Iranians in fulfilling a major step in the implementation of the JCPOA, taking enough uranium to leave the Iranians unable to produce a nuclear weapon. This represented a major foreign policy achievement for the Obama administration, and “one of the most significant steps Iran has taken toward fulfilling its commitment,” according to U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry. (New York Times, December 28, 2015)

As the United States contemplated imposing more stringent sanctions on businesses and individuals associated with the Iranian government in response to their recent missile tests, Iranian President Hassan Rouhani ordered his Defense Minister to oversee the accelerated development and production of ballistic missiles. “As the United States seems to plan to include the names of new individuals and firms in its previous list of cruel sanctions in line with its hostile policies...  the program for the production of the Armed Forces' needed missiles is required to continue more speedily and seriously,” Rouhani wrote, in an order to the Defense Minister. (Fars News, December 31, 2015)

Iranian state television aired footage of a previously undisclosed underground missile depot filled with Emad precision-guided missiles on January 5, 2016. United States officials believe that the Emad missiles are capable of carrying nuclear warheads.

Democratic lawmakers, both supporters and opponents of the nuclear deal, signed a letter sent to President Obama on January 6, 2016, urging his administration to impose sanctions on Iran in response to it's recent missile tests. The Congressmen wrote that they, “call on the Administration to immediately announce new, U.S. sanctions against individuals and entities involved in Iran’s ballistic missile program to ensure Iran is held accountable for its actions.” To read the full text of this letter, please click here.

Video was released on January 9, 2016, showing an Iranian military vessel firing multiple unguided rockets near the U.S. warship Harry S. Truman in the Strait of Hormuz on December 26, 2015. The Iranian vessel sent out a warning to ships in the area 20 minutes prior to launch, but Iranian officials repeatedly denied the incident took place, citing the claims as U.S. propaganda. The incident was described as “unsafe, unprofessional, and inconsistent with international maritime law,” by a U.S. Navy spokesman. (Marine Corps Times, January 11, 2016)

European Union Foreign Policy Chief Federica Mogherini said on January 11, 2016, that she expected that Iran sanctions could be lifted “rather soon,” because the “implementation of the agreements is proceeding well.” (Reuters, January 11, 2016)

Fulfilling one of it's major obligations in the implementation of the JCPOA, on January 11, 2016, the Iranian government announced that they had removed the core and officially filled the Arak reactor with concrete. This was one of the final, and most important steps in implementing the deal. Iranian officials denied these claims over the following days, claiming that plans to fill the reactor with concrete had been put on hold while Iranian-Chinese negotiations to modify the reactor continue.

Two U.S. Navy vessels carrying 10 crew members accidentally strayed into Iranian territorial waters on the evening of January 12, 2016, and Iranian authorities immediately sent assurances to U.S. officials that the sailors were safe and would be released promptly. The situation was reportedly resolved after phone calls between Secretary of State Kerry and Iranian Foreign Minister Zarif, during which Kerry assured Zarif that the issue stemmed from mechanical problems with the boats. The U.S. boats broke down approximately 12 nautical miles from Iran's coastline. The sailors were released on their own boats 16 hours after they were taken into custody, and were picked up by U.S. Navy aircraft and brought to Qatar. Officials alleged that Republican lawmakers in the United States contacted the Iranian government during negotiations for the sailors release, and asked them if they would keep the sailors prisoner until after the 2016 Presidential election. Top Iranian and French lawmakers claimed that the Republicans, worried about Obama and the Democrats winning a public relations victory so close to the 2016 election, urged the Iranian officials to not release the prisoners immediately and instead wait until it was politically convenient for them.

In a vote of 191-106 on January 13, 2016, House lawmakers approved the Iran Terror Finance Transparency Act. This legislation afforded Congress increased oversight of the implementation of the JCPOA, including giving them power to restrict or prevent certain groups and individuals from being taken off sanctions lists. President Obama has promised to veto any legislation that hinders implementation of the deal, and the legislation did not garner enough support to override a Presidential veto. Another vote on the bill was scheduled for January 26, 2016.


The United States and other world powers welcomed Iran back in to the global economy on January 16, 2016, lifting burdensome economic sanctions as the historic Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) took effect. The IAEA, the United Nations nuclear watchdog organization, released a report on January 16 confirming that Iran had complied with all aspects of the nuclear agreement. IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano penned a statement that read, “Iran has completed the necessary preparatory steps to start the implementation of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action... Relations between Iran and the IAEA now enter a new phase. It is an important day for the international community. In line with its commitments, Iran will start to provisionally implement the Additional Protocol to its Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA. Together with other nuclear-related measures under the JCPOA, this increases the Agency’s ability to monitor nuclear activities in Iran and to verify that they are peaceful” (IAEA, January 16, 2016). To read this final IAEA report confirming that Iran is in compliance with all aspects of the nuclear agreement, please click here.

The United Nations Security Council received the IAEA report detailing Iran's compliance with the JCPOA on January 16, 2016, triggering an automatic end to most United Nations Sanctions on Iran under UNSCR 2231 adopted on July 20, 2015. UNSCR 2231 states that when Iran completes all of the necessary steps to implement the agreement and the IAEA approves, seven Security Council resolutions against Iran will be lifted. The resolution includes an automatic snap-back provision to re-impose sanctions, should Iran be found in violation of the JCPOA. The Iranians are encouraged not to engage in research and development of ballistic missiles capable of delivering a nuclear warhead for eight years under UNSCR 2231, but the language is vague. This resolution also includes an arms embargo preventing Iran from selling or purchasing any weapons for five years.

In order to reach this historic date, Iran had to comply with all aspects of the nuclear agreement including dismantling approximately 13,000 centrifuges, removing the core of the Arak nuclear reactor and filling it with cement, and shipping the vast majority of it's enriched uranium stockpile to Russia. Speaking at a press conference in Vienna, Austria, U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry pointed out that Iran's stockpile of enriched uranium was just two percent of what it was prior to the JCPOA.

Although U.S. and International economic sanctions were lifted, the U.S. embargo on Iran remained in place, preventing U.S. companies from engaging in direct business with their Iranian counterparts with a few minor exceptions. These exceptions include passenger aircraft, rugs, and pistachio nuts. In addition to the embargo, sanctions relating to Iran's human rights abuses and support for terrorism remained in place. New sanctions pertaining to Iran's recent ballistic missile tests were simultaneously put in place by the Obama administration along with the lifting of economic sanctions. These sanctions targetted eleven individuals and small companies suspected of shipping critical technologies to Iran, such as carbon-fiber and parts to various missiles. Most Iranians will not be affected by these new sanctions. Iranian officials referred to these new sanctions in the subsequent days as “illegitimate,” and “propagandastic.” Iranian Foreign Ministry Spokesman Hossein Jaberi Ansari claimed that the sanctions “have no legal or moral legitimacy.” (Yahoo, January 18, 2016) Other Iranian officials asserted that they would continue to test their ballistic missiles, regardless of these new sanctions.

With the lifting of these sanctions, Iran will be able to export as much crude oil as it can find demand for.

Release of Hostages

Following the implementation of the nuclear agreement and just hours before the lifting of economic sanctions was to be announced, Iran released four Americans that had been held hostage for various periods of time, in a prisoner-swap. Included in the group was Washington Post reported Jason Rezaian, who was arrested on July 22, 2014, and found guilty of espionage in a closed trial in October 2015. Rezaian's wife was arrested with him, but was released in October 2014. The American prisoners released in the prisoner-swap with Iran were Rezaian, Marine veteran Amir Hekmati, Christian pastor Saeed Abedini, and Nosratollah Khosravi-Roodsari. Khosravi-Roodsari opted to stay in Iran after his release, and the other three were brought to Germany where they underwent medical evaluations. All four of these individuals held dual Iranian-U.S. citizenship. The United States released seven prisoners who had been involved in exporting products to Iran in violation of trade sanctions, in exchange for the four Iranian prisoners. Iranian officials and their American peers had engaged in secret negotiations planning this prisoner exchange for more than a year beforehand. Jewish Former FBI Agent and suspected Iranian prisoner Robert Levinson was not released with the group. Separately, Iran released recently detained student Matthew Trevithick. It was revealed in the following months that the United States paid Iran a sum of $400 million that night to secure the safe release of the prisoners. Although the payment was part of a $1.7 billion I.O.U. to Iran for equipment purchased from the United States but never delivered, State Department officials confirmed in mid-August 2016 that the payment was used as leverage, and the timing was no coincidence. The remaining $1.3 billion was delivered to Iran following the release of the prisoners.

Iran's Ayatollah Khamenei published a letter to President Hassan Rouhani on January 19, 2016, which was later posted on Khamenei's website. In the letter he calls American actions during the previous weeks deeply suspicious, refers to America as arrogant, and states that Iran has been bullied by sanctions levied by the international community. He instructs Rouhani to watch for American “deceptions and breaches of promises” (, January 20, 2016).

Valiollah Seif, the head of Iran's Central bank, said that Tehran successfully transfered funds from banks in Japan and South Korea to banks in Germany and the United Arab Emirates on January 19, 2016. It was not revealed how much money was transfered during this transaction, but Seif revealed that the lifting of sanctions with the implementation of the JCPOA would free up $32 billion in frozen overseas assets. U.S. based credit card companies like Mastercard and Visa, and payment processing applications such as Paypal are still forbidden from doing business in Iran. Most Iranians choose to use cash, because their credit and banking is not tied to the global system.

Nitro Zeus

In case diplomatic measures to curb Iran's nuclear program failed and led to a military conflict, according to Obama administration and intelligence officials the United States had a secret plan to carry out a cyber-attack against Iran code-named Nitro Zeus. The plan, developed as an alternative option to the P5+1 negotiations, would have largely disabled Iranian air defenses and communications systems, as well as crucial parts of the Iranian power grid. According to security and intelligence officials, at one point the preparations for Nitro Zeus included investments of millions of dollars and thousands of employees implanting code and programs within Iranian computer networks. A separate plan was developed by U.S. intelligence agencies to disable the Fordow nuclear facility by planting a destructive “worm” in the computer system, in a covert operation that would have needed the sole authorization of the President to carry out. This operation would have been a follow-up to Operation Olympic Games, in which the United States and Israel mounted a cyber-attack on the Iranian Natanz facility that destroyed 1,000 centrifuges.

The existence of the Nitro Zeus plan was revealed while director Alex Gibney was researching for his documentary “Zero Days,” which explores the conflict between Iran and West in the years leading up to the nuclear agreement. Gibney's findings were confirmed by separate New York Times interviews. The Nitro Zeus contingency plan was shelved after Iranian and P5+1 negotiators reached an agreement in July 2015.

New Concerns Regarding Iranian Ballistic Missile Program

New security arrangements to monitor the arms embargo against Iran as well as restrictions on Iran's ballistic missile program and all other programs still active after the implementation of the JCPOA were established by the United Nations Security Council on January 21, 2016. These arrangements and procedures replaced the Security Council committee charged with monitoring Iranian violations of sanctions that were removed with the implementation of the deal. The resolution including these arrangements also provides for an automatic reimposition of sanctions on Iran should the Security Council find it to be in violation of the JCPOA.

A bipartisan group of lawmakers, diplomats, policymakers, and experts published a statement on U.S. policy toward Iran in the weeks following the implementation of the deal. This statement explains that although the deal has been implemented there is still much work to be done, and encourages the Obama administration to reject Iran as an ally in the fight against ISIS as well as continue to closely monitor Iran to be sure it is not cheating the deal. The group statement recommends being completely willing to snap back sanctions, and bolstering ties to regional allies as ways to keep Iran contained. To read the full statement released by the group, please click here.

French diplomats asked the European Union on January 27, 2016, to consider new sanctions on Iran over their recent ballistic missile tests. It is unlikely that new sanctions will be imposed by the EU, as other member states view the move as counterproductive to efforts to revive political and economic ties with the Islamic Republic.

Iranian Army commander Major General Ataollah Salehi told reporters in Tehran on February 4, 2015, that their missile tests were not a breach of the JCPOA, and the Iranian missile program will continue to develop. Speaking about the new sanctions placed against the Islamic Republic in response to their ballistic missile tests, Salehi stated, “We are neither paying any attention to the resolutions against Iran, nor implementing them. We are doing our job and our missile program for the future will be stronger and more precise.” (PressTV, February 4, 2016)

Iran test-fired two Qadr H missiles with the phrase “Israel must be wiped out,” emblazoned on the sides on March 8, 2016. The missile test coincided with U.S. Vice President Joe Biden's visit to Israel to discuss upcoming aid packages. The head of Iran’s Revolutionary Guard’s aerospace division, Amir Ali Hajizadeh, made it clear that the missile test was intended to intimidate Israel, stating “The 2,000-kilometer (1,240-mile) range of our missiles is to confront the Zionist regime. Israel is surrounded by Islamic countries and it will not last long in a war. It will collapse even before being hit by these missiles.” (Time Magazine, March 8, 2016) The United States has Iran under “close watch,” after the missile tests, according to Vice President Joe Biden. The United States pressured the United Nations to condemn the missile tests as a violation of resolution 2231 during the subsequent week. Russian officials sided with Iran, claiming that 2231 only “suggests” Iran stop test-firing missiles. Therefore, Russian Ambassador to the United Nations Vitaly Churkin asserted the Iranian missile test did not violate 2231, stating to reporters that, “A call is different from a ban so legally you cannot violate a call, you can comply with a call or you can ignore the call, but you cannot violate a call.” (Free Beacon, March 15, 2016)

In response to these ballistic missile tests, the United States imposed new sanctions on Iranian defense firms, units of the Iranian Revolutionary Gaurds, Iran's Mahan Air, and two firms in the United Arab Emirates. These sanctions targetted entities that aided Mahan Air in smuggling various supplies into Syria, and played a supportive role in the country's latest missile tests.

U.S., German, British, and French officials expressed their opinions that the missile test was “in defiance” of resolution 2231 in a letter to UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon on March 29, 2016. The letter stated that the missiles launched were “inherently capable” of delivering nuclear weapons, and encouraged the Security Council to respond appropriately to the Iranian aggression. Following the launch, Iranian Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei offered support to the IRGC, bluntly stating, “Those who say the future is in negotiations, not in missiles, are either ignorant or traitors.” (Reuters, March 30, 2016)

Iranian officials announced that they had tested a significantly more accurate ballistic missile with a 2,000-kilometer range on May 9, 2016. The missile tested in early May can be remote-guided to an accuracy of within 8 meters of it's target, according to Deputy Chief of Staff of the Iranian Armed Forces Brigadier General Ali Abdollahi.

Iran test-fired a North Korean BM-25 Musudan ballistic missile on July 11, 2016, which exploded shortly after launch.

The only text linked to the JCPOA not released to the public was declassified shortly following the one-year anniversary of the agreement. The document, obtained and verified by anonymous sources, states that as of January 2027 Iran can and likely will begin to replace it's old centrifuges with thousands of modern machines.

Addressing the annual Iranian military parade in September 2016, Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces Major General Mohammad Hossein Baqeri contested that, “all military tests and war games will continue to be held according to the schedule and will not be suspended or delayed under any circumstances” (Tasnim, September 22, 2016).

The Iranian Revolutionary Guard displayed it's sophisticated Russian-made S-300 missile system in public for the first time during a military parade in September 2017.

Iran Continues to be a Leading Sponsor of Terror

Although global terror attacks experienced a 13% decline from 2014 to 2015, and global deaths from terror attacks experienced a 14% decline over the same period, a U.S. State Department report released in June 2016 asserted that Iran was still the top global sponsor of terrorism. Syria and Sudan were also named as significant state sponsors of terrorism in the State Department documents. During 2015 Iran sowed instability in the Middle East by arming and funding Hezbollah and the Assad regime, and using the Quds Force of its Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps to influence and drive foreign policy. Iran also provided financial and material support to many other groups, most notably the Hamas terror organization, various militant groups in Bahrain, and Houthi rebels in Yemen.

While speaking at the Aspen Ideas Festival in mid-June 2016, U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry stated that in his opinion Iranian involvement in Iraq was helping the United States in the fight against ISIS. Kerry stated, using a different name for the terrorist group, that “I can tell you that Iran in Iraq has been in certain ways helpful, and they clearly are focused on ISIL-Daesh.” The Secretary of State went on to say that Iran and the United States seem to have common goals in Iraq of defeating the Islamic State (CNN, June 28, 2016).

Iran Opens for Business

The implementation of the nuclear deal and subsequent lifting of harsh economic sanctions opened the Iranian economy up for investment and trade with most of the world.

Chinese government and business leaders held meetings with Iranian officials in early 2016 following the implementation of the JCPOA. On January 23, 2016, both countries pledged to increase bilateral trade to $600 billion in the coming decade. China's President Xi Jinping was the first foreign leader to visit Iran after international sanctions were lifted.

Iranian President Hassan Rouhani visited Italy in the week following implementation day, for, as Italian Foreign Minister Paolo Gentiloni put it, “a comprehensive relaunch of a strategic alliance” (Washington Post, February 2, 2016). Deals signed between the Iranian and Italian government on January 25, 2015, amounted to approximately 17 billion Euros, according to the Italian Industry Minister. President Rouhani spent three days in Italy, before travelling to France for the second part of his January 2016 European trip. French automaker Peugeot signed a deal with Iranian automaker Iran Khodro, pledging to produce 200,000 cars per year at a plant neat Tehran which they will also upgrade. When the car manufacturer was forced to close business with Iran in 2012 it suffered major losses, as Iran was Peugot's second largest market. As an apology for leaving the Iranian market abruptly due to sanctions, Peugot waived $89 million in outstanding Iranian debts, pledged to provide $28 million in free car parts, and also confirmed they will be providing a free production line for the Peugot 207 model, worth $12 million. Peugot was the first Western auto manufacturer to jump back into business with Iran, and the first vehicles are expected to roll off the production line in 2017. Airbus announced a deal with Iran Airlines during Rouhani's trip, agreeing to sell 118 aircrafts to the state-run airline. The total value of the deals signed by French and Iranian entities amounted to an estimated $16 billion.

Iranian Vice President Mohammad Bagher Nobakht said on state-run television that $100 billion in global Iranian frozen assets had been released, on February 2, 2016. The majority of these funds were released from banks operating in China, India, and Turkey. Nobakht also claimed that Iran was taking steps to rejoin the Belgium-based SWIFT international banking network. Later that week, on February 9, 2016, Nobakht stated that the money will not come to Iran and instead will still be kept in the foreign bank accounts, to avoid domestic inflation. This money will be handled the same as Iranian oil revenues in foreign institutions, according to the Vice President. Less than 10% of this money, $7 billion, belongs to the Iranian government, which they will receive and invest in infrastructure and development projects. The remaining money is owned by the National Development Fund of Iran ($50 billion), state-controlled oil companies and banks ($6 billion), and the Iranian Central Bank ($38 billion). The Iranian government's goal is to achieve a GDP growth rate of 8% annually by 2020, according to Nobakht.

Although specifics such as the timing and quantity of the purchase were not immediately announced, Iranian Defense Minister Hossein Dehghan published comments on the Defense Ministry website on February 10, 2016, confirming that Iran will sign contracts with Russia to purchase Sukhoi-30 fighter jets. Iran would also be involved in the production of the aircraft, according to Dehghan. The Sukhoi-30 fighter jet is equivalent to the American made F-15E fighter bomber jet. Dehghan also claimed that Iran would begin taking delivery of the Russian S-300 missile system within the coming months. During a visit to Russia on February 17, 2016, Dehghan claimed that the S-300 missile system would be delivered to Iran later that week. The U.S. State Department contended however, that the sale of this missile system without Security Council approval would be a direct violation of a UN arms embargo still in place for the next five years against Iran. While negotiating the JCPOA, agreed to in July 2015, the P5+1 kept in place a ban on conventional arms sales to Iran without prior UN Security Council approval. Iran originally announced that Russia had delivered the first components of the S-300 missile system during the weekend of April 9, 2016, but Iranian officialls recalled their statements in the following days. The missile system was shown off around Tehran on April 17, 2016, during the annual Iranian Army Day Parade. The missile portion of the system was delivered in mid-July 2016, according to Russian news agencies. The Iranian military deployed this missile system to central Iran to protect it's Fordow nuclear facility in August 2016.

Iranian citizens marked the anniversary of the 1979 Islamic Revolution on February 11, 2016, with chants of “death to America,” and “death to Israel.” President Rouhani spoke at a massive rally drawing thousands of participants, and pledged that Iran would never bow to the influence of the West.

On February 29, 2016, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) released their first public statement on Iran since sanctions relief went into effect. The FATF sets international standards for countering money laundering and terror finance activities, and has issued statements pertaining to Iran in February, June, and October of each year since 2008. Despite the lifting of sanctions by the international community and the implementation of the JCPOA, the FATF did not revise their February 2016 statement. The statement by the task force, which includes 37 member states, called on Iran to address it's discrepancies with the organization, and urged it's members to warn their banks about the risks of doing business with Iran. Iran is still considered a high-risk jurisdiction to do business in by the FATF.

U.S.-based jet manufacturer Boeing inked a $17.6 billion deal to sell airliners to Iran in mid-June 2016, but the deal was scrapped in early July after U.S. House members rejected it in a vote of 239-185.

Iran announced in August 2016 that it was moving forward with plans to build two new nuclear power plants under the parameters of the JCPOA, which will cost approximately $10 million. State Department officials clarified that this type of construction does not violate the agreement, stating, “the [nuclear deal] does not prevent Iran from pursuing new light-water reactors... Any new nuclear reactors in Iran will be subject to its safeguards obligations” (Washington Free Beacon, August 12, 2016).

A dual British-Iranian citizen who was involved in the banking-related aspects of the nuclear negotiations was arrested in Iran under charges of espionage in late August 2016. The charges against the alleged “spy,” identified as Abdolrasoul Dorri Esfahani, contend that he bypassed official channels and divulged sensitive information directly to the U.S. negotiators.

The National Iranian Oil Company reported in September 2016 that their exports of crude oil to India in August more than tripled from the previous year's numbers, to 576,000 bpd. Iranian crude oil exports to China grew 48%, to 749,000 bpd during the same month, and crude oil exports to China for the year were up 7%. Japanese imports of Iranian crude oil in 2016 rose 45% compared to 2015, and South Korean imports more than doubled.

The United States Treasury Department published a new set of guidelines for doing business with Iran on October 7, 2016, that eased financial sanctions and loosened monetary restrictions on the nation. Sanctions on the Iranian military's IRGC remained in place, as did restrictions pertaining to Iranian access to the U.S. financial system and banking institutions.

Total, an enegry company based in France, became the first Western energy company to sign a deal with the Iranian government following the implementation of the JCPOA. The agreement, signed on November 8, 2016, provides for “Phase 11,” development of the South Pars gas condensate field, the largest gas field in the world. France's Total already had a hand in developing the South Pars, spearheading phases 1 and 2 of the field's development in the early 2000's. The field, whichcovers 3,700 square miles, is shared between Iran and Qatar.

Chinese state oil company CPNC and French energy company Total announced a 20-year, $2 billion deal with the Iranian Petropars group in June 2017, with the goal of further developing the South Pars gas field.  This agreement marked the first major Western investment in Iran following the ease of sanctions in February 2016.  The Iranian Petropars group will own a 19.9% stake in the project, while CPNC will hold  30% and Total will retain a majority of 50.1%.  

On July 4, 2017, German automaker Volkswagen announced that they would begin to export and sell their Tiguan and Passat vehicles to Iran in August 2017.  Volkswagen will work with local auto firm Mammut Khodro to sell their cars in the country.  

It was reported in February 2018 that an Iranian airline under sanctions from the U.S. government had purchased U.S.-made jet engines through a Turkish front company.  This violation of sanctions had occured most recently in December 2017.  According to U.S. court filings, a Turkish woman set up multiple shell companies to purchase jet engines and other supplies for Iranian Mahan Air.  

Trump Adopts New Iran Policy

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) concluded in their periodic report published in September 2016 that Iran had exceeded the soft 130-tonne limit on it's stock of heavy water for the second time since the JCPOA was put in place in January. The other six signatories to the JCPOA, including the United States, issued statements encouraging the IAEA to make the limit more firm. To read the IAEA Board of Governors Report released in September 2016, please click here. It was confirmed by the IAEA in early December 2016 that Iran had shipped 11 tonnes of heavy water abroad, bringing their stockpile back under the limit set forth in the JCPOA.

Lawmakers in the United States House of Representatives passed a 10-year reauthorization of the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA) on November 15, 2016, first passed in 1996. The members also voted to impose sanctions on the Syrian government and it's supporters, including Russia and Iran, for war crimes and crimes against humanity committed against it's citizens. The legislation passed the Senate unanimously in a 99-0 vote, and passed the House with a vote of 419-1.

In response to the reauthorization of the ISA, Iranian President Hassan Rouhani ordered the development of a nuclear-propulsion system for Iranian ships on December 14, 2016. Iran had expressed interest in building nuclear-powered vessels before, most notably in 2012.

President Trump’s administration issued their first sanctions against Iran on February 3, 2017, in response to a recent ballistic missile test during the previous week.  The U.S. Treasury Department announced sanctions against 25 individuals and companies connected to and providing support for Iran's missile program.  Administration officials announced that these new sanctions were not placed on any entities or individuals that had their sanctions lifted as part of the JCPOA.  

Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif told reports during a press conference on March 21, 2016, that Iran is fully prepared to return to the pre-JCPOA situation or even [to conditions] more robust than that if the US reneges on its promises.  Zarif added that Iranian scientists had been continuing work with advanced centrifuges (PressTV, March 21, 2017).

U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson confirmed that Iran was remaining compliant with the JCPOA in a report to Congress on April 28, 2017.  Although it was confirmed by Tillerson that Iran was indeed complying with the stipulations set forth in the JCPOA, later that day President Trump added that they’re not living up to the spirit of the agreement, I can tell you that.  The President's comments were made during a joint press conference with the Italian Prime Minister.  

The president of the Institute for Science and International Security, David Albright, testified before the U.S. House Subcommittee of Oversight and Government Reform that the JCPOA needs to be implemented more effectively and its nuclear conditions strengthened and better verified on April 5, 2017.  Albright stated that the implementation of the JCPOA under the Obama administration was too permissive and tolerant of Iran’s violations of the deal, its exploitation of loopholes, and its avoidance of critical verification requirements.  The Trump administration needs to strengthen and fix the deal, according to the professionals at the Institute for Science and International Security.  To read the full text of David Albright's testimony, please click here.  

Director of US National Intelligence Daniel Coats testified during a U.S. Senate briefing on May 15, 2017, that despite the nuclear agreement Iran has been hard at work developing Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) technology. Coats stressed that the range and accuracy of Iranian missiles has steadily improved over time, and stated that the ICBMs would be Iran's “preferred method of delivering nuclear weapons, if it builds them.” The National Intelligence Director also suggested that “progress on Iran's space program could shorten a pathway to an ICBM because space launch vehicles use similar technologies” (Daily Mail, May 12, 2017).

Despite tough talk on the campaign trail about ripping up the JCPOA, on May 17, 2017, the Trump Administration's State Department announced an extension of general sanctions relief for Iran as part of the JCPOA. The State Department issued a statement, saying that the United States is continuing to waive sanctions as required to continue implementing the JCPOA. Additionally, the Treasury Department revealed new sanctions to be imposed on Chinese and Iranian individuals for supporting Iran's ballistic missile program. These sanctions were levied by the U.S. Treasury Department against  two senior Iranian defense officials, an Iranian company, a Chinese man, and three Chinese companies (Reuters, May 17, 2017).

The IAEA report released in June 2017 demonstrated that Iran was still complying with all aspects of it's commitments under the JCPOA. Iran's stock of low-enriched uranium remained below the limit set forth in the agreement, and further construction of the Arak reactor has not been pursued, according to the report issued by the nuclear watchdog organization.  

Chinese-American Xiyue Wang, a 37-year old graduate student researcher from Princeton University was sentenced to 10 years in Iranian prison on spying charges on July 16, 2017. Wang had been arrested in August 2016 upon trying to leave Iran and return to the U.S.A.  

On July 17, 2017, Trump reluctantly certified that Iran was complying with the JCPOA agreement. The certification came with announcements that the U.S. would work to toughen enforcement of the deal, increase sanctions on Iran for it's support of terrorists and other destabilizing activities, and cooperate with European powers to increase pressure on the Iranian government. While the administration certified that Iran was following the stipulations set forth in the agreement, one Trump administration official stated that the Iranians are “unquestionably in default of the spirit of the JCPOA” (Washington Post, July 17, 2017).

The day after agreeing that Iran was in compliance with the nuclear agreement, new sanctions against the country were announced jointly by the U.S. Departments of State, Treasury, and Justice. Eighteen individuals and entities involved in everything from missile development to software hacking and theft were designated in the new sanctions. Unlike previous rounds of sanctions levied against Iran, not all of the targets sanctioned were Iranian. A marine equipment supplier based in Turkey and a Chinese procurement agent who allegedly provided material support to an Iranian military electronics company were included in the sanctions as well. 

The U.S. House of Representatives passed the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act in a vote of 419-3 on July 25, 2017.  In addition to primarily targetting Russian officials in retaliation for their involvement in hacking the 2016 U.S. elections, the act also imposes new sanctions against Iranian and North Korean entities for illegal measures surrounding their missile programs.  These new sanctions affected 18 Iranian entities including two businessmen involved in software theft, and were designed to thwart Iranian military activities. An original version of the legislation, Countering Iran's Destabilizing Activities Act of 2017, was passed by the Senate on June 15, 2017.

Iranian Foreign Ministry spokesman Bahram Ghasemi spoke on Iranian television in the days following the passage of the act, promising to continue with full power our missile program, and calling the new sanctions hostile, reprehensible and unacceptable (Los Angeles Times, July 31, 2017). On August 13, 2017, the Iranian Parliament voted 240-4 to allocate $260 million to the country's missile development program, and an identical amount to the Quds Force.  

In a speech to the Iranian Parliament on August 14, 2016, President Hassan Rouhani bragged that a “far more advanced” nuclear program could be jump-started within hours if the U.S. does not hold up it's end of the JCPOA deal (New York Times, August 15, 2017). Echoing Rouhani's remarks, during an interview with Iranian state television the following week Iranian atomic chief Ali Akbar Salehi stated that Iranian scientists would need only 5 days to resume enriching uranium to over 20%. Clarifying his remarks, Salehi went on to assure the audience we are not interested in such a thing happening. We have not achieved the deal easily to let it go easily. We are committed to the deal, and we are loyal to it (Defense News, August 22, 2017).

On August 31, 2017, the IAEA once again certified that Iran was indeed complying with the parameters set forth in the JCPOA agreement. 

More than 80 of the world's top nuclear non-proliferation experts issued a joint statement on September 13, 2017, encouraging the Trump administration to not abandon the JCPOA nuclear deal. The experts, including past IAEA Director-General Hans Blix, stated in the letter that the Iran nuclear deal advances the secutity interests of the United States, and has been proven to be flexible and responsive to implementation problems that emerge   (, September 13, 2017).

In October 2017, IAEA chief Yukiya Amano once again certified that Iran was in compliance with all aspects of the JCPOA. The head of the international watchdog organization stated that the nuclear related commitments undertaken by Iran are being implemented, and added that the Iranians have not pursued construction of the Arak reactor (Al-Monitor, October 10, 2017).

The White House laid out their new Iran strategy in a policy paper and remarks by President Donald Trump on October 13, 2017. The new approach focuses on neutralizing the Government of Iran’s destabilizing influence and constraining its aggression, deny[ing] the Iranian regime funding for its malign activities, counter[ing] threats to the United States and... allies from ballistic missiles and other asymmetric weapons, and attempting to ensure that Iran does not develop a nuclear weapon. To read the full White House press release on President Trump's new Iran policy, please click here.  To read Trump's remarks about the new Iran strategy, please click here.  

In a letter to Congress delivered on October 30, 2017, ninety of the top U.S. experts in atomic sciences urged the Trump administration to keep the Iran deal in place. The experts recommended that Congress act to keep the deal, as scientists who understand the physics and technology of nuclear power, of nuclear explosives, and of long-range missiles; and who collectively bring their experience with nuclear nonproliferation. Earlier in the day, a statement signed by 20 government officials and Iran policy experts expressing their support for Trump's position on the agreement was released by the Foundation for Defense of Democracies (New York Times, October 31, 2017).

The IAEA certified again in November 2017 that Iran was complying with all aspects of the nuclear agreement. The report said Iran’s stockpiles of enriched uranium have not exceeded the agreed limit of 300 kilograms, and that the IAEA is being granted access to all sites they have requested to visit.

On January 11, 2018, President Trump announced the continuation of sanctions relief for Iran as part of the nuclear agreement.  To read the White House's full statement, please click here.  

Critiques of the JCPOA Implementation

Critics warned that the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) was flawed; nevertheless, it was agreed to by the United States and its international partners. The most immediate sign of its failure, according to detractors, was the increased bellicosity of Iran, and the intensification of its efforts to destabilize its neighbors and establish a hegemonic Shiite sphere of influence that threatens Israel and Arab allies. “The list of Iranian transgressions has increased dramatically since the date that the [nuclear deal] was signed,” said CIA director Mike Pompeo (Jenna Lifhits, “Cotton on Iran Nuclear Deal: ‘I Simply Do Not See How We Can Certify,’” Weekly Standard, September 18, 2017).

David Albright, President of the Institute for Science and International Security, testified in Congress:

Those who argued that a key benefit of the nuclear deal would be a moderation of Iran’s behavior in the region have been sadly disappointed. Armed with substantial funds and a growing economy, Iran is challenging the United States in the region and appears as committed to maintaining the capability to pursue a nuclear weapons path as before, just a longer path (David Albright, “House Subcommittee Testimony of David Albright on Assessing Iran Nuclear Deal,” Institute for Science and International Security, April 5, 2017).

On September 14, 2017, Secretary of State Rex Tillerson said, “Iran is clearly in default of these expectations of the JCPOA,” adding that Iran’s actions are “threatening the security of those in the region as well as the United States itself” (Nick Wadhams, “Tillerson Says Iran ‘Clearly in Default’ of Nuclear Deal’s Terms,” Bloomberg, September 14, 2017).

Supporters of the deal say the IAEA has certified Iran’s compliance to prove that it is working. They neglect to mention, however, that the IAEA has found that Iran has committed several violations and only complied when caught. According to National Security Advisor H.R. McMaster, “the IAEA has identified, and we’ve identified some of these breaches that Iran has then corrected. But what does that tell you about Iranian behavior? They’re not just walking up to the line on the agreement. They’re crossing the line at times” (“General H.R. McMaster on global threats,” Fox News, September 17, 2017).

IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano revealed in September 2017 that Russia opposed the agency’s enforcement of one part of the JCPOA – Section T – which bans “activities which could contribute to the development of a nuclear explosive device,” such as using computer models that simulate a nuclear bomb, or designing multi-point, explosive detonation systems. The U.S. believes the IAEA is responsible for monitoring these activities and the failure to do so is a flaw in the agreement that inhibits the IAEA’s ability to verify Iran is not engaged in nuclear weapons research and development (Francois Murphy, “IAEA chief calls for clarity on disputed section of Iran nuclear deal,” Reuters, (September 26, 2017).

Albright notes that it is difficult to assess Iran’s compliance with the JCPOA because of “the excessive secrecy surrounding the implementation of the deal and its associated parallel arrangements” (David Albright, “House Subcommittee Testimony of David Albright on Assessing Iran Nuclear Deal,” Institute for Science and International Security, April 5, 2017). Nevertheless, his institute found several Iranian violations of the agreement, as well as cases where Tehran exploited loopholes in the deal to weaken its effectiveness. For example:

  • Iran has twice had more than its heavy water limit of 130 metric tons inside Iran.
  • Iran is likely operating advanced IR-6 centrifuges in excess of the limit allowed.   
  • The Atomic Energy Organization of Iran has sought sensitive nuclear-related materials and facilities beyond what it needs or should get.
  • Iran is seeking to exploit a loophole in reactor restrictions, including work on naval propulsion reactors. 

German intelligence has caught Iran seeking “products and scientific know-how for the field of developing weapons of mass destruction as well [as] missile technology” (Benjamin Weinthal, “Iran Still on the Hunt for Nuclear Weapons Technology Across Germany,” Weekly Standard, July 7, 2017). Additional intelligence reports from Germany indicated Iran attempted to buy nuclear technology illegally 32 times that definitely or with high likelihood were undertaken for the benefit of proliferation programs (Benjamin Weinthal, “Iran attempted to buy nuclear technology illegally 32 times, German agency says,” Fox News, October 9, 2017).

Iran has also violated agreements related to the deal, notably, by its noncompliance with UNSC resolution 2231’s prohibition on conventional weapons sales and transfers and its prohibition on ballistic missile testing. Director of U.S. National Intelligence Daniel Coats testified during a U.S. Senate briefing on May 15, 2017, that Iran has been hard at work developing Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) technology. Coats stressed that the range and accuracy of Iranian missiles has steadily improved over time, and stated that the ICBMs would be Iran's “preferred method of delivering nuclear weapons, if it builds them.” The National Intelligence Director also suggested that “progress on Iran's space program could shorten a pathway to an ICBM because space launch vehicles use similar technologies” (Amanda Ulrich, “Iran ‘is still developing ballistic missiles that could carry nuclear warheads in violation of UN resolution,’” Daily Mail, May 12, 2017).

More important, negotiators accepted Iranian demands to cease investigation of its prior weapons research and, according to Iran, barred monitors from military sites despite the fact the JCPOA was described as giving the IAEA the right to visit any site in Iran, whether military or civilian (David Albright and Olli Heinonen, “Verifying Section T of the Iran Nuclear Deal: Iranian Military Site Access Essential to JCPOA Section T Verification,” Institute for Science and International Security, August 31, 2017). According to Israeli sources, within a few months of signing the JCPOA, the IAEA was given information regarding sites Iran had not reported as part of its nuclear program and where it was believed forbidden nuclear military research and development activity was being conducted. Few of the suspected sites were inspected because of Iran’s refusal to allow access and the IAEA’s unwillingness to confront Iran on the issue (Barak Ravid, “Israel: IAEA Received Info About Suspected Iranian Nuclear Sites but Didn't Inspect Many of Them,” Haaretz, September 17, 2017).

This is quite different from Obama’s promise of “unprecedented” inspections (Glenn Kessler, “President Obama’s claim of ‘unprecedented inspections’ in Iran,” Washington Post, February 6, 2014). Since the IAEA does not visit the sites where Iran is most likely engaged in prohibited activities, there is no way to know whether Iran is engaged in prohibited activities at those locations.Obama acknowledged that Iran would have no prohibition on getting a weapon after the deal’s expiration while simultaneously claiming the deal “cuts off all of Iran’s pathways to the bomb” (Roll Call, July 14, 2015). He admitted “in year 13, 14, 15 [of the proposed deal], they [Iran] have advanced centrifuges that enrich uranium fairly rapidly, and at that point the breakout times would have shrunk almost down to zero” (“Transcript: President Obama's Full NPR Interview On Iran Nuclear Deal,” NPR, April 7, 2015).

The head of Iran’s nuclear program has said Iran has the capability to build advanced centrifuges on short notice and Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif admitted Iranian scientists had been continuing work with advanced centrifuges (PressTV, March 21, 2017). According to the Institute for Science and International Security, “The mass production of these centrifuges (or their components) would greatly expand Iran’s ability to sneak-out or breakout to nuclear weapons capability, or surge the size of its centrifuge program if the deal fails, or after key nuclear limitations end. If Salehi’s statement is true, Iran could have already stockpiled many advanced centrifuge components, associated raw materials, and the equipment necessary to operate a large number of advanced centrifuges” (David Albright and Olli Heinonen, “Is Iran Mass Producing Advanced Gas Centrifuge Components? Can we even know with the way the Iran deal has been structured and implemented so far?” Institute for Science and International Security, May 30, 2017).

This concern was reinforced when Iran’s nuclear chief, Ali Akbar Salehi, said in July 2017 that Iran could reactivate the reactor capable of producing plutonium for a bomb and ramp up enrichment of uranium to the pre-agreement level of 20% within five days (“Iran: Five days needed to ramp up uranium enrichment,” Al Jazeera, August 22, 2017; “Iranian Statements Underscore Weaknesses of Nuclear Deal,” The Tower, September 12, 2017). On March 5, 2018, Behrouz Kamalvandi, spokesman for Iran’s Atomic Energy Organization, said this level of enrichment could be reached in within 48 hours (David Brennan, “Iran Nuclear Program Can Restart Within 48 Hours If Deal Collapses, Official Claims,” Newsweek, (March 5, 2018).

Critics have also noted that the failure of the agreement to include Iranian sponsorship of terror, ballistic missile research and development, and aggression against its neighbors, combined with the release of billions of dollars in previously frozen funds, has allowed Iran to accelerate each of these activities. In September 2017, for example, it was disclosed that Iran increased its support for the Hezbollah to $800 million a year and resumed payments of $60-70 million to Hamas (Anna Ahronheim, “Iran Pays $830 Million To Hezbollah,” Jerusalem Post, September 18, 2017).

Based on these perceived flaws, Israel’s prime minister and others have called on the Trump administration to fix the nuclear deal or tear it up.

Iran’s Nuclear Archive

On April 30, 2018, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu displayed excerpts of some 100,000 files Israel obtained from a secret compound in Tehran detailing Iran’s nuclear weapons activities (Haaretz, April 30, 2018). Netanyahu said Iran moved records of the weapons program to a secret warehouse in Tehran. The Mossad discovered the location in February 2016, broke into the building in January 2017, and smuggled the original documents back to Israel (New York Times, April 30, 2018).

Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said “these documents are real, they are authentic” and the White House issued a statement saying Netanyahu’s information is “new and compelling.” The Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS) noted that Netanyahu presented a “surprising amount of information that was not previously known by Israeli, Western intelligence, or the IAEA about Iran”s nuclear weapons program” (@TheGoodISIS, April 30, 2018).

“These files conclusively prove that Iran is brazenly lying when it says it never had a nuclear weapons program,” Netanyahu said. Pompeo agreed that the documents indicated “the Iranians have continued to lie to their own people.” He added, that they debunked the Iranian claim that they have “never had a program like this.”

According to the documents, the nuclear weapons program, Project Amad, began in the early 1990s with the goal of designing, producing and testing five warheads, each with a 10 kiloton TNT yield, for integration on a missile. Following the signing of the JCPOA, Iran preserved and expanded its nuclear knowhow for future use, under a different name using the same personnel. 

The agreement had also called for the IAEA to report on Iran’s past nuclear activities, but it never did so, in part due to Iran’s refusal to cooperate. The final IAEA report prior to implementation of the JCPOA said Iran failed “to cooperate on central points” to establish that it had never pursued a nuclear weapon. Nevertheless, the IAEA concluded Iran had been “exploring the technologies, testing, and components that would be needed to produce a weapon someday” (New York Times, December 2, 2015).

The Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS), noted that “Iran had an opportunity to come clean about its past nuclear weapons effort” in 2015, but, “instead, Israel found, it accelerated its effort to organize, preserve, and hide this massive archive of nuclear weaponization data and documents” (@TheGoodISIS, April 30, 2018).

According to ISIS: “No document explicitly stated that Iran will use the archives to build nuclear weapons in the future.  But, question has to be asked, why preserve and extend such extensive archives if Iran never plans to build nuclear weapons?” (@TheGoodISIS, April 30, 2018).

The evidence put forth in this presentation pertained to Iranian activities before the nuclear agreement was signed, and Netanyahu did not provide any evidence that the Iranians are currently violating the nuclear agreement.   

Trump Withdraws From the JCPOA

After Trump had warned he would cancel the deal with Iran, administration officials spent months trying to negotiate an agreement with European allies on how to strengthen the JCPOA to satisfy the president’s concerns. As columnist Bret Stephens noted, “the same people who previously claimed the deal was the best we could possibly hope for suddenly became inventive in proposing means to fix it” (New York Times, May 8, 2018).

The Europeans were unwilling, however, to make significant changes in the agreement, and were particularly opposed to reimposing sanctions that would threaten their business opportunities in Iran. Consequently, on May 8, 2018, Trump announced the United States would be exiting the nuclear deal, making good on a campaign pledge to undo an agreement he repeatedly criticized as the worst deal ever. “The Iran deal is defective at its core,” he said. "If we do nothing, we know exactly what will happen. In just a short period of time, the world’s leading state sponsor of terror will be on the cusp of acquiring the world’s most dangerous weapons.”

Trump also announced the U.S. would reimpose sanctions lifted as part of the JCPOA and that “no new contracts” with Iran will be permitted. The U.S. Treasury Department said it would halt transactions in Iranian government debt or currency, and purchases involving the country’s automobile sector within 90 days. Deals involving Iran’s oil and energy sector, shipping and ports, would be banned within 180 days. Individuals and entities that were delisted from sanctions will be re-designated. Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin specifically said the administration was revoking licenses for Boeing and Airbus to sell aircraft to Iran. Mnuchin also declared, “Our objective is to, again, eliminate transactions and eliminate access to their oil industry” (Washington Post, May 9, 2018).

One objective of the sanctions is to bring Iran back to the negotiating table and allow the international community to forge a deal that will prevent Iran from building a nuclear weapon and stop its other destabilizing activities. The day after withdrawing from the agreement, Trump warned if Iran resumed its nuclear program, there would be “very severe consequences” (Politico, May 9, 2018).

After Trump’s announcement, French President Emanuel Macron, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, and UK Prime Minister Teresa May issued a joint statement expressing “regret and concern” and stating their intention to honor the terms of the agreement. French Foreign Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian said that the deal remains in place despite the American withdrawal (Yara Bayoumy and Brian Love, “Europeans scramble to save Iran deal after Trump reneges, Reuters, May 9, 2018). An official statement from the Chinese Foreign Ministry urged the international community to defend the deal.

European Union leaders also met with their Iranian counterparts to reassure them they would do what they could to protect the JCPOA from the effects of the sanctions. Trade between the European Union and Iran skyrocketed following the signing of the JCPOA, from $9.2 billion in 2015 to $25 billion in 2017. Trump, however, warned that “any nation that helps Iran in its quest for nuclear weapons could also be strongly sanctioned by the United States.” Secretary of State Mike Pompeo added later: “We understand that our reimposition of sanctions and the coming pressure campaign on the Iranian regime will pose financial and economic difficulties for a number of our friends. Indeed, it imposes economic challenges to America as well. These are markets our businesses would love to sell into as well. And we want to hear their concerns. But we will hold those doing prohibited business in Iran to account” (Remarks at the Heritage Foundation, May 21, 2018).

The decision to withdraw from the deal was met with widespread criticism from many foreign policy experts, former Obama administration officials and some nuclear proliferation analysts. A poll published by Politico also indicated the American public was split on the decision (40-37 percent opposed pulling out in response to one question but, when worded differently, respondents approved by a 42-40 percent margin) and  most felt it made both the United States and Israel less safe (Politico, May 2018).

Meanwhile, America’s Middle Eastern allies expressed enthusiastic support for the U.S. announcement. IsraelSaudi ArabiaEgypt, the UAE, and Bahrainall pointed out the flaws in the agreement and hailed Trump’s decision (MEMRI, May 9, 2018).

Iranian President Hassan Rouhani expressed his desire to stay in the deal and continue negotiations with the European Union, China and Russia. Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif tweeted that he would “spearhead a diplomatic effort to examine whether remaining JCPOA participants can ensure its full benefits for Iran.” He said the outcome of those talks would “determine our response” (Washington Post, May 9, 2018). Khamenei subsequently said Iran would resume its nuclear activities unless the Europeans agreed to “safeguard trade” and protect Iranian oil sales from U.S. sanctions by purchasing Iranian crude. He also demanded that the Europeans promise not to seek negotiations on Iran’s ballistic missile research or its regional activities (Washington Post, May 24, 2018).

Despite the U.S. withdrawal from the agreement, the IAEA still has “both the right and the obligation to ensure the peaceful nature of Iran’s nuclear program” based on United Nations Security Council Resolution 2231 and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Iran also “has a binding legal obligation to grant the IAEA access to all relevant sites, materials, equipment, documents, and personnel to resolve outstanding questions about the military dimensions of Iran’s past nuclear activities” (FDD Memorandum, May 21, 2018).

Trump's move isolated the United States on the international stage, as no other members of the P5+1, G-7 or G-20 supported Trump's decision to abandon the Iran deal.  

America's 12 Demands on Iran

On May 21, 2018, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said “any new agreement will make sure Iran never acquires a nuclear weapon, and will deter the regime’s malign behavior in a way that the JCPOA never could.” He laid out 12 demands that Iran must meet before the U.S. will lift sanctions and consider the reestablishment of full diplomatic and commercial relationships with Iran:

  1. First, Iran must declare to the IAEA a full account of the prior military dimensions of its nuclear program, and permanently and verifiably abandon such work in perpetuity.
  2. Second, Iran must stop enrichment and never pursue plutonium reprocessing. This includes closing its heavy water reactor.
  3. Third, Iran must also provide the IAEA with unqualified access to all sites throughout the entire country.
  4. Iran must end its proliferation of ballistic missiles and halt further launching or development of nuclear-capable missile systems.
  5. Iran must release all U.S. citizens, as well as citizens of our partners and allies, each of them detained on spurious charges.
  6. Iran must end support to Middle East terrorist groups, including Lebanese Hizballah, Hamas, and the Palestinian Islamic Jihad.
  7. Iran must respect the sovereignty of the Iraqi Government and permit the disarming, demobilization, and reintegration of Shia militias.
  8. Iran must also end its military support for the Houthi militia and work towards a peaceful political settlement in Yemen.
  9. Iran must withdraw all forces under Iranian command throughout the entirety of Syria.
  10. Iran must end support for the Taliban and other terrorists in Afghanistan and the region, and cease harboring senior al-Qaida leaders.
  11. Iran must end the IRG Qods Force’s support for terrorists and militant partners around the world.
  12. Iran must end its threatening behavior against its neighbors – many of whom are U.S. allies. This certainly includes its threats to destroy Israel, and its firing of missiles into Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. It also includes threats to international shipping and destructive – and destructive cyberattacks.

Pompeo acknowledged these terms were tough, but said they were no different than what was expected of Iran prior to signing the JCPOA:

In 2012, President Obama said, quote, “The deal we’ll accept is [that] they end their nuclear program,” end of quote. That didn’t happen. In 2006, the P5 voted at the Security Council for Iran to immediately suspend all enrichment activities. That didn’t happen.

In 2013, the French foreign minister said he was wary of being sucked into a, quote, “con game,” end of quote, over allowing Iran to continue uranium enrichment.

In 2015, John Kerry said, quote, “We don’t recognize the right to enrich,” end of quote. Yet the Iranians are enriching even as we sit here today.

“So we’re not asking anything other than that Iranian behavior be consistent with global norms, global norms widely recognized before the JCPOA. And we want to eliminate their capacity to threaten our world with those nuclear activities” (Remarks at the Heritage Foundation, May 21, 2018).

New Sanctions

The United States imposed sanctions on multiple Iranian companies and individuals accused of running an illegal currency-exchange network on May 10, 2018. On May 15, the United States named Valiollah Seif, the governor of the Iranian central bank, along with Ali Tarzali, who works in the central bank’s international division, “specially designated global terrorists.” The Treasury Department accused the men of secretly funneling millions of dollars through an Iraqi bank to help Hezbollah. The sanctions apply to non-Americans and non-U.S. companies, which means that anyone in any country who does business with Seif or Tarzali could be punished, creating a strong disincentive for governments or businesses considering deals involving Iran’s central bank (AP, May 15, 2018). On May 24, 2018, the Treasury Department announced sanctions on nine individuals and firms accused of procuring jet engines and airplane parts for Iranian airlines previously blacklisted for their support of U.S.-designated terror groups (Wall Street Journal, May 24, 2018).

Critics of the Trump Administration insisted Iran could not be pressured by the United States alone and that it was only the multilateral sanctions that brought Iran to the negotiating table. The U.S. prohibitions on doing business with Iran, however, are having a major impact as American companies cancel deals with Iran and European companies do the same despite their governments’ continuing support of the deal. The following is just a sample of the impact of the U.S. policy:

  • The top two shipping container carriers, 2M partners MSC and Maersk Line, announced they are reviewing their plans in Iran due to the changing situation (The Maritime Executive, May 14, 2018). French shipping group CMA CGM later announced it was pulling out of Iran (Reuters, July 7, 2018).
  • One of the largest deals between a European company and Iran involved the French oil and energy company Total, which signed a multibillion dollar agreement to develop Iran’s South Pars gas field in 2017. The company announced it was abandoning the project unless it receives an exemption from U.S. authorities (Reuters, May 16, 2018).
  • Hyundai and Mazda cancel their contracts with Iranian automaker (BBC Persian, June 11, 2018).
  • Airbus reportedly cancelled its deal to provide aircraft to Iran (AFP, June 16, 2018).
  • Korean contractor Daelim has cancelled a $2 billion contract to modernize a refinery in the Iranian city of Esfahan (Global Construction Review, June 4, 2018).
  • Hyundai Heavy Industries, the world’s largest shipyard was supposed to deliver container ships to an Iranian shipping company starting in April 2018, but has yet to deliver a single vessel (Korea Times, June 13, 2018).
  • PSA, owner of the French carmaker Peugeot, said it had begun to suspend its joint ventures in Iran (Financial Times-UK, June 4, 2018).
  • South Korea, one of Iran’s main customers in Asia, will not load any Iranian crude and condensate in July, halting all shipments for the first time in six years (Reuters, July 5, 2018).

It was reported that at least 17 U.S. companies did business with Iran using foreign subsidiaries after the Iran nuclear deal went into effect in January 2016. Most appear to be terminating their activities in Iran to avoid crippling sanctions. For example:

  • Boeing cancelled a deal to sell 80 aircraft valued at $16.6 billion to Iran (AFP, June 16, 2018).
  • General Electric is planning to end sales of oil and natural-gas equipment to Iran (Wall Street Journal, May 31, 2018).
  • Dover, a manufacturing conglomerate, said it would end its business in Iran (Wall Street Journal, June 5, 2018).

In another blow to the Iranian economy, the Dutch airline KLM said in a statement in July 2018: “As a result of the negative results and financial outlook for the Tehran operation, the last flight will take off from Amsterdam on September 22, 2018 and land at Schiphol on September 23.” The decision was likely a product of the U.S. sanctions, but also coincided with an unexplained decision to deport two Iranian diplomats (Jerusalem Post, July 8, 2018).

The Treasury Department announced on July 9, 2018, it was sanctioning Mahan Travel and Tourism Sdn Bhd, a Malaysia-based General Sales Agent, for acting for or on behalf of Mahan Air, an Iranian airline previously designated in connection with Iran’s support for international terrorism. Mahan Air was sanctioned in 2011 for “providing financial, material and technological support to the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps-Quds Force (IRGC-QF).”“Mahan Air is the airline of choice for the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps-Qods Force, facilitating its support to terrorism across the Middle East. Mahan’s regular flights to Syria are used to prop up the Assad regime and deliver weapons, foreign fighters, and Iranian operatives who sow violence and unrest across the region,” said Secretary of the Treasury Steven T. Mnuchin. “The United States government has been very clear about the deadly role played by Mahan Air. Our action against an independent company providing General Sales Agent services to Mahan makes clear to all in the aviation industry that they urgently need to sever all ties and distance themselves immediately from this airline” (U.S. Department of the Treasury, July 9, 2018).

On August 7, “snapback” sanctions came into force targeting Iranian purchases of U.S. dollars, metals trading, coal, industrial software and its auto sector. Trump tweeted, “Anyone doing business with Iran will NOT be doing business with the United States” (Haaretz, August 7, 2018).

Europe Tries to Keep Agreement Alive

European governments remained committed to the JCPOA and continued to negotiate with Iran on how to strengthen the agreement after the United States pulled out of the deal. The Iranians, however, have been unwilling to make any changes to the agreement.

Meanwhile, the Europeans hoped they could circumvent U.S. sanctions. In a major setback, however, the European Investment Bank rejected an EU proposal to do business in Iran. “The resistance from the European Union’s lending arm underscores the limits of the bloc’s ability to shield trade with Iran from the reimposition of U.S. sanctions” (Reuters, June 5, 2018).

In early July, the Europeans invited Iran’s President Rouhani to attend a meeting to discuss how to get around U.S. sanctions. Netanyahu pointed out the same week “his regime dispatched a terrorist cell to carry out a major terrorist action in France. The commander of this terrorism cell was an Iranian diplomat in Austria.” The plot to bomb a rally in Paris staged by Iranian opposition groups was discovered and members of the cell were arrested in France, Belgium and Germany. The Iranian diplomat was expelled (Deutsche Welle, July 2, 2018). Netanyahu said, “Here’s my message to the European leaders: Stop funding the very regime that is sponsoring terrorism against you and against so many others. Stop appeasing Iran” (Prime Minister’s Office, July 3, 2018).

Ahead of the talks, Rouhani told the leaders of France and Germany that a European package of economic measures to counter the effects of U.S. sanctions did not meet Iran’s demands. Instead of the leaders meeting, foreign ministers and senior diplomats from Britain, China, France, Germany, and Russia held talks on July 6 with their Iranian counterpart, Mohammad Javad Zarif, but failed to reach an agreement to salvage the nuclear deal after Iran said the package of economic measures they were offered did not go far enough. Afterward, EU foreign policy chief Federica Mogherin said the parties agreed to continue negotiations (Radio Free Europe, July 6, 2018).

The German newspaper Bild reported the Iranian regime intends to fly 300 million euros in cash from Germany to Iran. The mullahs are worried that they will run out of cash because of U.S. sanctions (Bild, July 8, 2018). The United States and Israel are concerned the money will be used to finance terrorism and Iran’s foreign adventures and the U.S. ambassador to Germany called on Berlin to block the plan (Haaretz, July 10, 2018).

Replying to a June 4, 2018, letter from BritainFrance and Germany seeking broad exemptions for  European firms doing business in Iran, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin wrote that the Trump administration would grant only limited exceptions based on national security or humanitarian grounds (NBC News, July 14, 2018).

Sanctions Begin to Bite

Even before U.S. sanctions went into full effect, they were having an impact on Iran’s economy. Iran’s currency, the rial, has declined 50% in 2018 compared with the dollar, making imports more expensive and forcing Iran’s manufacturers and exporters to cut production and cancel contracts. Iran’s oil exports fell about 8% in the first two months following the U.S. withdrawal from the JCPOA, and that was before sanctions on oil kicked in.

Iran’s economy was already suffering from high unemployment and inflation, but had been projected to have modest growth as a result of the business activity that resumed following the signing of the JCPOA. Now, however, the economy is expected to grow by less than half the previously projected rate and to contract in 2019 (Wall Street Journal, July 18, 2018).

In addition to attempting to strangle the Iranian economy as a means of pressuring the government to change its policy, the Trump administration has launched a campaign to foment unrest by using social media, speeches and other communications critical of the government. Pompeo said the U.S. is creating a Farsi channel across television, radio, digital and social media formats to circumvent Internet censorship in Iran “so that ordinary Iranians inside Iran and around the globe will know that America stands with them” (Washington Post, July 23, 2018).  Some of the messages are meant to convince the public their leaders are corrupt and neglecting their welfare; for example, by portraying the government as squandering money on foreign adventures rather than spending it domestically on the Iranian people (Reuters, July 22, 2018).

On July 21, 2018, Iranian President Hassan Rouhani warned the Trump administration against continuing to oppose Iran and threatened to shut down international oil shipments in the Strait of Hormuz.  “Mr. Trump, don’t play with the lion’s tail, this would only lead to regret,” IRNA, the state-run news wire, quoted Rouhani as saying. “America should know that peace with Iran is the mother of all peace, and war with Iran is the mother of all wars”(Reuters, July 22, 2018).

A day later, Trump tweeted:


Iran again upped the ante with Iran’s Major General Qassem Soleimani warning that the Red Sea was no longer safe for US vessels. “You may begin the war, but it is us who will end it,” the Iranian commander said (Asharq Al-Awsat, (July 27, 2018).).

In the latest sign of turmoil in Iran created by Trump’s policy, Valiollah Seif, governor of the central bank of Iran was fired. An indication of the economic decline is the continuing devaluation of Iran’s currency. When Seif took over the bank in 2013, it cost 30,000 rials to buy $1; today a dollar costs 112,000 (New York Times, July 25, 2018) after plunging 12.5% in one day (June 28-29). Iran’s annual inflation rate is now 203%. (Forbes, July 29, 2018).

Iran Continues to Advance Nuclear Program

Ali Akbar Salehi, head of Iran’s Atomic Energy Organization, said Iran is close to finishing a factory where it can build a new generation of centrifuge machines. He also said Iran has imported some 400 tons of yellowcake uranium since signing the JCPOA, bringing its stockpile to between 900 and 950 tons. This is permissible under the agreement; however, Iran is still required to limit enrichment of uranium to 3.67 percent, enough to use in a nuclear power plant but less than the 90 percent needed for an atomic weapon (AP, July 18, 2018).

Reports released in 2018 by the German intelligence agencies in Hamburg, Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg, North Rhine-Westphalia and Hesse obtained by the Jerusalem Post indicate Iran continues to seek weapons of mass destruction (Jerusalem Post, July 21, 2018).

The July report from Hamburg said that Iran is among the “crisis countries” that “are still making an effort to obtain products for the manufacture of atomic, biological and chemical weapons of mass destruction (proliferation) and the corresponding missile carrier technology (rocket technology).” The report added, “Iran continues to pursue unchanged an ambitious program to modernize its rocket technology with the goal of a continued increase of the reach of the missiles.”

Bavaria’s intelligence agency disclosed in April: “Iran, North Korea, Syria and Pakistan are making efforts to expand their conventional weapons arsenal through the production of weapons of mass destruction.”

The report compiled in Hesse specified that Iran was one of two countries seeking to obtain nuclear weapons. “States like Iran and North Korea attempt, in the context of proliferation, to acquire and spread such weapons by, for example, disguising the transportation ways through third countries.”

In June, Baden-Württemberg intelligence reported: “Iran continued to undertake, as did Pakistan and Syria, efforts to obtain goods and know-how to be used for the development of weapons of mass destruction and to optimize corresponding missile-delivery systems.”

The North Rhine-Westphalia intelligence agency wrote: “Because of the demand for relevant goods for its rocket program, Iran continues to represent proliferation defense in our work.”